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Dopamine Theory Aberrant Behavior.
On Sat, 17 Jan 2009 02:03:14 -0800 (PST), "
"Multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral propensities,
such as severe alcoholism,cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine use,
glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction, ADHD,
autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder,
schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and antisocial
This article clearly shows in the plant .. maltol a sugar .. is
ESSENTIAL for the breakdown of dopamine .. it keeps the dopamine
THERE .. / prevents the breakdown.
Effect of maltol on the oxidation of DL-DOPA, dopamine, N-
acetyldopamine (NADA), and norepinephrine by mushroom tyrosinase.
Pigment Cell Res. 1997 Jun;10(3):139-49.
Kahn V, Ben-Shalom N.
Department of Food Science, Agricultural Research Organization,
Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.
Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) appears to inhibit the rate
of oxidation of DL-DOPA, dopamine, NADA and epinephrine by tyrosinase
when assayed spectrophotometrically but not when assayed
Maltol has an effect on the spectrum of product(s) formed when each
catecholamine was oxidized by tyrosinase showing that maltol hastens
the disappearance of the quinones, possibly by conjugating with them.
Indeed, at relatively high concentrations, maltol prevented the
conversion of DL-DOPA, dopamine, and norepinephrine to their
corresponding melanins via tyrosinase.
PMID: : 9266600
'Dopamine theory' states it might be
useful to attempt to DO what the successful drugs
have been shown to do.
Raise dopamine levels in the brain?
Or utilize the dopamine we produce .. or both?
Dopamine Extinguishes Smoking
Drug dulls desire for cigarettes, study finds
WEDNESDAY, Sept 4 (HealthScoutNews) -- Medicine that mimics increased
levels of the brain chemical dopamine could help extinguish a
smoker's desire for cigarettes.
That's the finding of a study, appearing in the September issue of
Nicotine and Tobacco Research, that focused on 20 heavy smokers.
They were given drugs that either increased or decreased their
brain's dopamine levels. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that affects
motor function and is believed to affect emotion.
Animal studies show nicotine causes dopamine release in brain areas
linked to feelings of pleasure.
This new study found that when the smokers were given the dopamine-
mimicking drug bromocriptine, they smoked less than when given a drug
that impedes the effects of dopamine.
Bromocriptine is used to treat Parkinson's disease, some tumors and
"Overall, these results imply that smoking behavior can be
manipulated within the same subjects in opposite directions by
alternately stimulating and blocking dopamine, which strongly
suggests the importance of dopamine in reinforcement from cigarette
smoking," says lead researcher Nicholas H. Caskey, of the Veterans
Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and the Neuropsychiatric
Institute at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine.
DG DISPATCH - AACAP: Nicotine Patches Improve Adult AD/HD Symptoms
So anything which raises your dopamine seems to be in order?
Phytol / inositol / sugar or .. maltol / sugar.
In India they have shown a very high rate of cure with simple
The phytol / inositol / sugar / iron chelator in THAT / vegetable
lecithin treatment ..
As opposed to maltol / sugar / iron chelator shown to raise dopamine
in man .. ?
One might wonder whether phytol has been shown to raise dopamine in
These sugars phytol and maltol are found in any health food store and
also plants .. fruits and vegetables.
IP6 / phytol / inositol is a natural iron chelating sugar found in any
health food store or from food 'bran' and in vegetable lecithin .
Maltol is an iron chelating sugar found in any health food store or
your food ..
This article shows what happens when iron is involved in the mouse
Maltol is a hydroxypyridone a sugar natural iron binder.
"Hydroxypyridone influenced dopamine metabolism"
"Causes significant variations in dopamine turnover"
Brain iron in the ferrocene-loaded rat: its chelation and influence
on dopamine metabolism.
Biochem Pharmacol 1995 Jun 16;49(12):1821-6
Ward RJ, Dexter D, Florence A, Aouad F, Hider R, Jenner P, Crichton
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kings College, London, U.K.
After administration of the ferrocene derivative 3,5,5-trimethyl
hexanoyl ferrocene to rats for 4 weeks various brain regions
including substantia nigra, cerebellum and cerebral cortex showed
up to 50% increase in iron content.
Subsequent administration of one of the hydroxypyridones CP20, CP24
and CP94, or the siderophore desferrioxamine caused a significant
decrease in the iron content of these various brain regions.
Each of the hydroxypyridones and the siderophore influenced
dopamine metabolism by causing significant variations in both
homovanillic acid and dopamine turnover.
Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and
treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors.
J Psychoactive Drugs 2000 Nov;32 Suppl:i-iv, 1-112
Blum K, Braverman ER, Holder JM, Lubar JF, Monastra VJ, Miller D,
Lubar JO, Chen TJ, Comings DE
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas,
Denton, Texas, USA.
The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2
receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms.
The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic
brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released
from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with
a dopamine D2 receptor.
"The reward cascade" involves the release of serotonin, which
in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn
inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the
amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or "reward site."
It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA
works to maintain our normal drives.
In fact, DA has become to be known as the "pleasure molecule"
and/or the "antistress molecule."
When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA
receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being
and stress reduction.
A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a
dysfunction in the brain reward cascade, which could be caused by
certain genetic variants (polygenic), especially in the DA system
causing a hypodopaminergic trait, the brain of that person requires a
DA fix to feel good.
This trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behavior.
This is so because alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine,
and glucose all cause activation and neuronal release of brain DA,
which could heal the abnormal cravings.
Certainly after ten years of study we could say with confidence that
carriers of the DAD2 receptor A1 allele have compromised D2
Therefore lack of D2 receptors causes individuals to have a high risk
for multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral
propensities, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine,heroin,marijuana and
nicotine use, glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction,
ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome, autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic
stress disorder, schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and
In order to explain the breakdown of the reward cascade due to
both multiple genes and environmental stimuli (pleiotropism) and
resultant aberrant behaviors, Blum united this hypodopaminergic trait
under the rubric of a reward deficiency syndrome.
PMID: 11280926, UI: 21177392
Who loves ya.
Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
Man Is A Herbivore!
DEAD PEOPLE WALKING
An informative article.
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