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Stretching before Workout



 
 
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  #1  
Old December 8th 03, 09:17 AM
PageWithStuff.com
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Default Stretching before Workout

I read in the previous thread that you shouldnt stretch before your workout,
why is that?

On the books that i've read, they say that you should stretch for about 10
minutes before every workout as that would minimize the risk of injuries
when your muscles are warmed up. Also, if not stretching, you should do some
sort of cardio exercies to raise your body temperature.

Is this wrong? I always thought that stretching was good, especially before
the workout....


  #2  
Old December 8th 03, 11:56 AM
Mistress Krista
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Posts: n/a
Default Stretching before Workout


"PageWithStuff.com" wrote in message
news:[email protected]
I read in the previous thread that you shouldnt stretch before your

workout,
why is that?

On the books that i've read, they say that you should stretch for about 10
minutes before every workout as that would minimize the risk of injuries
when your muscles are warmed up. Also, if not stretching, you should do

some
sort of cardio exercies to raise your body temperature.

Is this wrong? I always thought that stretching was good, especially

before
the workout....



First, distinguish between active and passive flexibility. Active
flexibility is the ability to take a joint through a full range of motion
(ROM). For example, this could mean the ability to drop into a full squat or
execute a high martial arts kick. Passive flexibility is the more familiar
stretch-and-hold sort of flexibility, where the joint is brought
deliberately to the edge of its range and then held there.

Passive type stretches have been shown to diminish power output temporarily,
for at least an hour after performance. Active moving stretches, however,
are an integral part of a weights warmup. They can be as simple as
performing the desired movement (e.g. squat or press) with lighter weight
for a set before moving to the working weight. There is no evidence that
the traditional passive type stretches reduce injury in any way. Indeed,
some studies in sprinters have shown an increased rate of hamstring injury
when passive hamstring stretches are used before training.

A few minutes of cardio is also good as a warmup, though. As we age, we
require more warmup.


Krista

--
--------------------
www.stumptuous.com/weights.html
www.trans-health.com



  #3  
Old December 8th 03, 03:27 PM
DRS
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Posts: n/a
Default Stretching before Workout

Mistress Krista *rem0vethis* wrote in
message . rogers.com

[...]

A few minutes of cardio is also good as a warmup, though.


That's why I love my 5 minutes on the bike before heading for the cage. It
gets everything warmed up nicely.

As we age,
we require more warmup.


Oh, dear.

--

"Posting at the top because that's where the cursor happened to be is like
****ting in your pants because that's where your asshole happened to be."
Andreas Prilop


  #4  
Old December 8th 03, 04:30 PM
ff123
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Posts: n/a
Default Stretching before Workout

On Mon, 08 Dec 2003 11:56:45 GMT, "Mistress Krista"
*rem0vethis* wrote:

Passive type stretches have been shown to diminish power output temporarily,
for at least an hour after performance. Active moving stretches, however,
are an integral part of a weights warmup. They can be as simple as
performing the desired movement (e.g. squat or press) with lighter weight
for a set before moving to the working weight. There is no evidence that
the traditional passive type stretches reduce injury in any way. Indeed,
some studies in sprinters have shown an increased rate of hamstring injury
when passive hamstring stretches are used before training.


Passive stretching decreases the risk of injury if it is used
properly: as a way to increase range of motion to the requirements of
the sport in question. Eg., one needs good hamstring flexibility
(among other things) to properly perform squats. If one isn't
flexible enough, the back will round, and injury can result.

But put passive stretching at the end of workouts, as recommended by
the others.

One thing to be careful of is increasing flexibility too much. The
idea is to increase ROM to the needs of the sport, but no more.
Joints that are too flexible for the sport also have a higher risk of
injury.

A few minutes of cardio is also good as a warmup, though. As we age, we
require more warmup.


I think the original poster didn't have a very clear idea of the
difference between warming up and stretching. They are two very
different things, as people have explained.

ff123
  #5  
Old December 8th 03, 09:44 PM
Roger Zoul
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Posts: n/a
Default Stretching before Workout

Mistress Krista wrote:
:: "PageWithStuff.com" wrote in message
:: news:[email protected]
::: I read in the previous thread that you shouldnt stretch before your
::: workout, why is that?
:::
::: On the books that i've read, they say that you should stretch for
::: about 10 minutes before every workout as that would minimize the
::: risk of injuries when your muscles are warmed up. Also, if not
::: stretching, you should do some sort of cardio exercies to raise
::: your body temperature.
:::
::: Is this wrong? I always thought that stretching was good,
::: especially before the workout....
::
::
:: First, distinguish between active and passive flexibility. Active
:: flexibility is the ability to take a joint through a full range of
:: motion (ROM). For example, this could mean the ability to drop into
:: a full squat or execute a high martial arts kick. Passive
:: flexibility is the more familiar stretch-and-hold sort of
:: flexibility, where the joint is brought deliberately to the edge of
:: its range and then held there.
::
:: Passive type stretches have been shown to diminish power output
:: temporarily, for at least an hour after performance. Active moving
:: stretches, however, are an integral part of a weights warmup. They
:: can be as simple as performing the desired movement (e.g. squat or
:: press) with lighter weight for a set before moving to the working
:: weight. There is no evidence that the traditional passive type
:: stretches reduce injury in any way. Indeed, some studies in
:: sprinters have shown an increased rate of hamstring injury when
:: passive hamstring stretches are used before training.
::

Krista -- would you happen to know off hand where I can find some reading
material on this --- a net site or a book, or even a journal article will be
fine.



  #6  
Old December 8th 03, 10:25 PM
Mistress Krista
external usenet poster
 
Posts: n/a
Default Stretching before Workout


"Roger Zoul" wrote in message
...
Krista -- would you happen to know off hand where I can find some reading
material on this --- a net site or a book, or even a journal article will

be
fine.



This stuff is a bit old but still good:
http://www.cmcrossroads.com/bradapp/...ching_toc.html

A study on preworkout stretching and injury:
--------------------------
Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury:
a

critical review of the clinical and basic science literature.



Shrier, I



Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, SMBD-Jewish General

Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.



OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and basic science evidence surrounding

the hypothesis that stretching immediately before exercise prevents injury.

DATA SOURCES AND SELECTION: MEDLINE was searched using MEDLINE subject

headings (MeSH) and textwords for English- and French-language articles

related to stretching and muscle injury. Additional references were reviewed

from the bibliographies, and from citation searches on key articles. All

articles related to stretching and injury or pathophysiology of muscle
injury

were reviewed. Clinical articles without a control group were excluded.



RESULTS: Three (all prospective) of the four clinical articles that
suggested

stretching was beneficial included a cointervention of warm-up. The fourth

study (cross-sectional) found stretching was associated with less

groin/buttock problems in cyclists, but only in women. There were five

studies suggesting no difference in injury rates between stretchers and

nonstretchers (3 prospective, 2 cross-sectional) and three suggesting

stretching was detrimental (all cross-sectional). The review of the basic

science literature suggested five reasons why stretching before exercise

would not prevent injuries. First, in animals, immobilization or

heating-induced increases in muscle compliance cause tissues to rupture more

easily. Second, stretching before exercise should have no effect for

activities in which excessive muscle length is not an issue (e.g., jogging).

Third, stretching won't affect muscle compliance during eccentric activity,

when most strains are believed to occur. Fourth, stretching can produce

damage at the cytoskeleton level. Fifth, stretching appears to mask muscle

pain in humans.



CONCLUSION: The basic science literature supports the epidemiologic evidence
that stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of injury.

--------------------------

Also, below I have included the text of an article that appeared in the
journal The Physician and Sports Medicine. I hope the formatting isn't
totally fux0red, because it's pasted from a plain text capture. There are
also references in there for more reading.


Krista

----------------------

The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Myths and Truths of Stretching







Myths and Truths of Stretching

Individualized Recommendations for Healthy Muscles

Ian Shrier, MD, PhD; Kav Gossal, MD

THE PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE - VOL 28 - NO. 8 - AUGUST 2000







In Brief: Stretching recommendations are clouded by misconceptions and

conflicting research reports. This review of the current literature on

stretching and range-of-motion increases finds that one static stretch
of

15 to 30 seconds per day is sufficient for most patients, but some
require

longer durations. Heat and ice improve the effectiveness of static

stretching only if applied during the stretch. Physicians should know
the

demands of different stretching techniques on muscles when making

recommendations to patients. An individualized approach may be most

effective based on intersubject variation and differences between
healthy

and injured tissues.

Despite limited evidence, stretching has been promoted for years as an

integral part of fitness programs to decrease the risk of injury
(1-6),

relieve pain associated with "stiffness" (5), and improve sport

performance (4-6). Many different stretching recommendations have come
out

of the medical literature, and new research has challenged some
long-held

concepts about common stretching practices. As a result,
misconceptions

and misinterpretations are common--not just among patients, but among

healthcare professionals, as well. Thus, many clinicians are at a

difficult crossroads when making sound recommendations to patients.

Proposed Stretching Benefits

Proposed mechanisms are thought to be either (1) a direct decrease in

muscle stiffness (defined as the force required to produce a given
change

in length) via passive viscoelastic changes or (2) an indirect
decrease

due to reflex inhibition and consequent viscoelasticity changes from

decreased actin-myosin cross-bridging. Decreased muscle stiffness
would

then allow for increased joint range of motion.

New evidence suggests that stretching immediately before exercise does
not

prevent overuse or acute injuries (7,8). However, results from animal

studies suggest that continuous stretching (ie, 24 hours per day) over

days, compared with intermittent stretching of only minutes per day,

outside of exercise periods may produce muscle hypertrophy (9-11),
which

could theoretically reduce the risk of injury (9,12). However,
clinical

research on stretching minutes per day is still inconclusive (13,14),
and

more research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made.

With respect to alleviating the pain associated with stiffness, the
weight

of the evidence suggests that the decrease in stiffness is not as

important as the increase in "stretch tolerance" (15-17). Briefly, an

increase in stretch tolerance means that patients feel less pain for
the

same force applied to the muscle. The result is increased range of
motion,

even though true stiffness does not change. This could occur through

increased tissue strength or analgesia; however, increased stretch

tolerance that occurs immediately after stretching must be caused by
an

analgesic effect because tissue strength does not increase during 2

minutes of stretching. Unfortunately, evidence of a possible analgesic

effect is recent, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. After weeks
of

stretching, increases in stretch tolerance could theoretically occur

because stretch-induced hypertrophy may increase tissue strength
(9-11),

and/or an analgesia effect may be present.

A Search for Answers

Despite the controversies mentioned previously, stretching still
decreases

pain and may provide substantial benefits if used under appropriate

conditions. However, the problem remains on how to choose an
appropriate

stretching protocol. Most authors now believe ballistic stretching
(ie,

bouncing) is dangerous (4-6,18). Time recommendations for holding a

stretch vary between 10 and 60 seconds (5,19-24). Clinicians are also

faced with choosing a method that may improve the effectiveness of

stretching: superficial heat, superficial ice, deep heat, and warm-up

(25-30).

To determine which stretching techniques are most effective, we
reviewed

all studies cited on MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus that compared stretching

protocols for increasing range of motion. We chose range of motion as
the

end point because it is the tangible objective most people use when
they

stretch and because most studies have not addressed true muscle
stiffness.



We addressed the following questions: (1) How long and how many times

should a stretch be performed to obtain maximum benefit?, (2) Does

temperature alter the effectiveness of stretching?, and (3) Which

stretching method is most effective: static, ballistic, or
proprioceptive

neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching?

Our review includes only studies of range of motion involving healthy

muscle-tendon units--not diseased or abnormal capsular or ligamentous

restrictions such as adhesive capsulitis that may require a different

duration and frequency of stretching to increase range of motion
(31,32).

In addition, we could not find any papers that investigated the
effects of

stretching on injured patients. Any extrapolations of our review to

injured patients should be performed with caution.

Duration and Frequency

Before discussing the evidence on how long to hold a stretch, it is

necessary to explain the concept of viscoelasticity. Stretches must be

held to obtain maximum range of motion because muscles are not purely

elastic, but rather viscoelastic. An elastic substance such as a
rubber

band lengthens for a given force and returns to its original length

immediately upon release. The effect is not dependent on time. On the

other hand, the flow and movement of a viscous substance such as
molasses

depends on time (33). A viscoelastic substance exhibits both
properties.

Therefore, muscle length increases over time if a constant force is

applied (creep, figure 1A: not shown), or the force decreases over
time if

the muscle is stretched to a constant length and held
(stress-relaxation,

figure 1B: not shown). When the force is removed, the substance slowly

returns to its original length. This is different from plastic

deformation, in which a material such as a plastic bag remains
permanently

elongated even after the force is removed (33). Note that though
stretches

also affect tendons and other connective tissue, within the context of

normal stretching, the stiffness of the overall motion is mostly
related

to the least stiff section (ie, resting muscle) and is minimally
affected

by the stiffness of tendons.

Patients are given many common protocols on stretch duration. In
summary,

for both the immediate (within 60 minutes) and long-term (over weeks)

range-of-motion increases, research shows that one 15- to 30-second

stretch per muscle group is sufficient for most people, but some
people or

muscle groups require longer duration or more repetitions. For
immediate

effects, stretching increases range of motion through both a decrease
in

viscoelasticity and an increase in stretch tolerance (ie, the
analgesic

effect previously discussed). With long-term stretching,
viscoelasticity

remains constant and the increased range of motion occurs only because

more force can be applied to the muscle before the subject feels pain
(ie,

increased stretch tolerance).

Immediate effects. The immediate effects of stretching on range of
motion

have been studied in animals and humans. In isolated rabbit extensor

digitorum and anterior tibialis muscles that were stretched for 30

seconds, viscoelastic effects increased muscle length until the fourth

stretch (34). These results are consistent with those of human
hamstring

muscles that showed decreased stiffness with five repeated stretches
(35).



However, Madding et al (24) found that increased hip abduction range
of

motion did not differ between 15, 45, or 120 seconds of stretching.

Although these results may appear contradictory, viscoelasticity may
vary

by muscle group. In support of this theory, Henricson et al (27) found

that muscles differed in their response to heat plus stretching. If
true,

the optimal duration and frequency for stretching may also vary by
muscle

group. Alternatively, range of motion in humans might be primarily
limited

by pain (15-17). If this theory is true, any smaller benefits obtained

from decreased viscoelasticity with longer-duration stretches would be

overshadowed by the large changes in range of motion from
stretch-induced

analgesia (stretch tolerance).

Long-term effects. The long-term effects of stretching on range of
motion

have been studied in humans only. After 6 weeks, individuals
randomized to

stretch for 30 seconds per muscle each day increased their range of
motion

much more than those who stretched 15 seconds per muscle each day. (A

small increase in range of motion in the 15-second group was not

statistically significant.) No further increase was seen in the group
that

stretched for 60 seconds (19).

In another study conducted over 6 weeks, the same researchers (22)
found

that one hamstring stretch of 30 seconds each day produced the same

results as three stretches of 30 seconds. However, the results of
Borms et

al (36) appear to contradict these findings because 10-second
stretches

were as effective as 20- or 30-second stretches. Closer inspection of

Borms' data, however, reveals large variation among individuals, and
the

study was performed over 10 weeks instead of 6 weeks. If one examines
the

data for trends, it appears that the 20-second and 30-second groups

reached a plateau after 7 weeks, but the 10-second group increased

gradually over the entire 10 weeks. Therefore, 30-second stretches are

likely to achieve the maximum benefit quicker (within 6 to 7 weeks)
than

10-second stretches, but the two programs eventually achieve similar

results by 10 weeks.

Rationale for individualized programs. The above studies support the
use

of 30-second stretches as part of a general fitness program. This may
be

appropriate for group exercise classes in which one would want to use
a

duration that would benefit most individuals--similar to the
recommended

dietary allowance for vitamins and minerals. However, physicians and

physical therapists usually treat individuals rather than groups.

In the animal study (34) that showed maximum benefit with four
stretches,

response varied depending on the individual experimental muscle.

Consequently, some muscles must have achieved maximum benefit after
two to

three stretches, whereas others required five to six stretches. In
human

long-term studies, some individuals gained much range of motion with
only

15 seconds of stretching, while others gained very little with 45
seconds

(24).

Finally, all of the current research has been done on healthy tissue.

Because muscle fatigue decreases viscoelasticity (37), it is
reasonable to

predict that injuries (with torn tissue, deposition of scar tissue,
tissue

reorganization, and muscle atrophy and weakness) will also change

viscoelasticity, though the direction of the change is not clear.

Therefore, healthcare professionals should be cautious about
extrapolating

these results to injured athletes, who may require longer stretches to

increase range of motion. (See "Safety Concerns in Stretching,"
below.)

Rather than give everyone the same stretching recipe, we prefer to

individualize our prescription to account for intersubject variation
and

differences between healthy and injured tissues. We advise patients to

stretch until they feel a certain amount of tension or slight pulling

associated with this length, but no pain. As the stretch is held,

stress-relaxation occurs, and the force on the muscle decreases. When

patients feels less tension because of changes in viscoelasticity and
an

analgesic effect, they can then simply increase the muscle length
again

until they feel the original tension. The second part of the stretch
is

held until patients feel no further increase.

If patients return for follow-up and have not gained any range of
motion,

and they are not overstretching (forcing a stretch, causing muscle
spasm

or pain), intersubject variability cited above may be the reason, and
the

clinician should consider recommending that the stretch be held
longer.

The effectiveness of this approach, however, remains to be tested.

Temperature Effects

In summary, passive warming of a muscle before stretching or icing
during

the stretch can be used to increase the range of motion but will not

prevent injury. Patients who include an active warm-up period prior to

stretching obtain the greatest range of motion. Contrary to popular

belief, warm-up performed without stretching does not increase range
of

motion.

Most of the research in this area has been done on animals using
passive

warming devices such as heat lamps. Research in humans often uses
activity

to warm the muscle, but activity affects the muscle in many ways--for

example, calcium release and motor unit recruitment patterns--besides

simply raising the temperature. This may explain the different results

observed in animals and humans.

Passive warm-up and icing. Several studies examined the effect of

temperature on range of motion. When applied before a static stretch,

neither heat nor ice significantly affected the range of motion during

active knee extension--a test of hamstring range of motion--when
compared

with stretching alone (38). Though heat alone did not improve range of

motion, stretch plus heat was superior to stretch alone with respect
to

increases in hip flexion, abduction, and external rotation (27);
shoulder

range of motion (30); and triceps surae range of motion (25). Ice
applied

during a static stretch was the most effective method for increasing
range

of motion during a passive static stretch (29), but only when applied

during the earlier stages of the stretch (30). Cold application during
PNF

stretching did not improve range of motion above the normal PNF
technique

(26).

In summary, despite some conflicting results, applying either ice or
heat

during a static stretch increases the range of motion compared with
static

stretch alone, but it has no effect during PNF stretches. Because ice
and

heat both increase range of motion and decrease pain, but have
opposite

effects on stiffness, the mechanism for the increased range of motion
is

probably analgesia rather than decreased stiffness.

Active warm-up. Most people believe that the light activity performed

during warm-up will increase muscle temperature, decrease muscle

stiffness, and increase range of motion. Animal studies consistently
show

a decrease in stiffness if the muscle or tendon is preheated (39-41).

However, the range of temperatures studied is usually outside the
normal

physiologic range in humans (39-41).

In humans, the effectiveness of active warm-up to decrease stiffness

appears to be related to the type of warm-up exercise and the muscle

tested. For example, running appears to decrease the stiffness of the
calf

muscles (42) but not the hamstring muscles (43); running had no effec
on

range of motion in these studies. Stretching added after warm-up
decreases

hamstring muscle stiffness (range of motion not reported); however,
the

effect lasts less than 30 minutes, even if exercise continues after

stretching (43). In the only study that measured the effect of
cycling,

hamstring or quadriceps range of motion did not change, although ankle

range of motion increased (stiffness not measured ) (44). In another

study, 15 minutes of cycling increased passive hip flexion and
extension

(stiffness was not measured) (45), but the pelvis was not properly

stabilized during range-of-motion measurement.

Although activity by itself does not have a major effect on range of

motion, studies consistently show greater range-of-motion increases
after

warm-up followed by stretching than after stretching alone (42,44).
This

research has probably been the basis for the recommendation to always
warm

up before stretching. The problem is that most people interpret it to
mean

that stretching before exercise prevents injuries, even though the

clinical and basic science research suggests otherwise (7,8). A more

precise interpretation is that warm-up prevents injury (46-49),
whereas

stretching has no effect on injury (7,8). Therefore, if injury
prevention

is the primary objective (eg, recreational athletes who consider

performance a secondary issue) and the range of motion necessary for
an

activity is not extreme, the evidence suggests that athletes should
drop

the stretching before exercise and increase warm-up.

Which Method Is Most Effective?

In general, PNF stretching has resulted in greater increases in range
of

motion compared with static or ballistic stretching (26,50-56), though

some results have not been statistically significant (57-59).

Of the different types of PNF techniques, the agonist-contract-relax

method (the hip flexors, including quadriceps muscles, actively
stretch

the hamstrings, followed by a maximal quadriceps contraction and
passive

holding) appears superior to the contract-relax method (muscle
contraction

followed by passive stretching) (50,54-56), which appears superior to
the

hold-relax technique (isometric contraction with resistance gradually

applied over 9 seconds) (50,54-56,60).

For those who prefer the simplicity of static stretching, one study
(61)

reported that static stretching (continuous stretching without rest)
is

superior to cyclic stretching (applying a stretch, relaxing, and

reapplying the stretch), whereas two studies (62,63) suggested no

difference. All of these studies involved stretching the hamstring

muscles, and methodological reasons for the discrepancy were not
apparent.

More research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made.

Take-Home Points

Many of the different proposed protocols for stretching have some
support

from the published literature. The major points for clinical practice
a



Heat, ice, and warm-up all increase the effectiveness of stretching
to

increase range of motion, but only warm-up is likely to prevent
injury.

Although one 30-second stretch per muscle group is sufficient to

increase range of motion in most healthy people, it is likely that

longer periods or more repetitions are required in some people,

injuries, and/or muscle groups.

Individuals should determine a strategy for themselves by simply
holding

a stretch until no additional benefit is obtained.

Though PNF stretching is the most effective technique for increasing

range of motion, the mechanism is an increase in stretch tolerance,
and

the muscle actually undergoes an eccentric contraction during the

stretch. The increased analgesia may aid in performance but

theoretically increases the risk of injury when compared with static

stretches.

References

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1995;14(3):669-686

Garrett WE Jr: Muscle strain injuries: clinical and basic aspects.
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stretching on the range of hip motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther

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improvement in flexibility. Am J Sports Med 1986;14(4):316-319

Brodowicz GR, Welsch R, Wallis J: Comparison of stretching with ice,

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J

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Lentell G, Hetherington T, Eagan J, et al: The use of thermal agents
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influence the effectiveness of a low-load prolonged stretch. J
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soleus

muscle be stretched each day to prevent contracture? Dev Med Child

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repeated stretches in human hamstring muscle in vivo. Am J Sports
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1996;24(5):622-628

Borms J, Van Roy P, Santens JP, et al: Optimal duration of static

stretching exercises for improvement of coxo-femoral flexibility. J

Sports Sci 1987;5(1):39-47

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1997;29(12):1619-1624

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Starring DT, Gossman MR, Nicholson GG Jr, et al: Comparison of
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and sustained passive stretching using a mechanical device to
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resting length of hamstring muscles. Phys Ther 1988;68(3):314-320







Safety Concerns in Stretching

Although the main objective of this article was to compare the

effectiveness of different stretching regimens to increase range of

motion, we also feel it is important to discuss safety. Follow-up
studies

have not investigated the safety of different stretching modalities,
so

all comments here and in the medical literature are theoretical.

Some clinicians believe ballistic stretching is dangerous because the

muscle may reflexively contract if restretched quickly following a
short

relaxation period (ie, eccentric or lengthening contraction) (1), and

eccentric contractions are believed to increase the risk of injury
(2,3).

We agree with this concern, but it is important to add that ballistic

stretching is more controlled than most athletic activities.
Therefore, it

is likely to be much less dangerous than the sport itself if performed

properly and not overly aggressively.

The original theory that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
(PNF)

techniques increase range of motion through reciprocal muscle
inhibition,

thereby decreasing electromyographic activity, was first disproved in
1979

(4,5) and again more recently (6,7). Muscles are electrically silent

during normal stretches until end range of motion nears. Surprisingly,
PNF

techniques increase electrical activity and muscle stiffness during
the

stretch (4,5,7), despite the observed increase in range of motion.
This

means that the muscle eccentrically contracts during the PNF stretch,

which most clinicians would consider more dangerous than electrically

silent muscle. PNF and ballistic stretching both cause an eccentric

contraction, but PNF stretching appears to have a more pronounced

analgesic effect. From a safety viewpoint, it does not seem prudent to

"anesthetize" a muscle during or immediately before it is required to

perform higher-risk eccentric contractions. The benefits of the
greater

increase in range of motion should be balanced against a theoretical

increase in the risk of injury. (There are no data on risk of injury
with

PNF stretching.)

References

Stark SD: Stretching techniques, in The Stark Reality of Stretching.

Richmond, BC: Stark Reality Publishing, 1997, pp 73-80

Newham DJ, McPhail G, Mills KR, et al: Ultrastructural changes after

concentric and eccentric contractions of human muscle. J Neurol Sci

1983;61(1):109-122

Hunter KD, Faulkner JA: Pliometric contraction-induced injury of
mouse

skeletal muscle: effect of initial length. J Appl Physiol

1997;82(1):278-283

Markos PD: Ipsilateral and contralateral effects of proprioceptive

neuromuscular facilitation techniques on hip motion and

electromyographic activity. Phys Ther 1979;59(11):1366-1373

Moore MA, Hutton RS: Electromyographic investigation of muscle

stretching techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980;12(5):322-329

Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, et al: Mechanical and physical

responses to stretching with and without preisometric contraction in

human skeletal muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77(4):373-378

Osternig LR, Robertson R, Troxel R, et al: Muscle activation during

proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching
techniques.

Am J Phys Med 1987;66(5):298-307







Dr Shrier is director of the Consultation Service Centre for Clinical

Epidemiology and Community Studies at Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish
General

Hospital in Montreal. Dr Gossal is a staff physician in the Department
of

Family Medicine at Saint Mary's Hospital at McGill University in
Montreal.

Address correspondence to Ian Shrier, MD, PhD, Centre for Clinical

Epidemiology and Community Studies, Lady Davis Institute for Medical

Research, SMBD-Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Côte Sainte Catherine Rd,

Montreal, QB H3T 1E2; e-mail to .










  #7  
Old December 8th 03, 11:37 PM
ff123
external usenet poster
 
Posts: n/a
Default Stretching before Workout

On Mon, 08 Dec 2003 22:25:58 GMT, "Mistress Krista"
*rem0vethis* wrote:


"Roger Zoul" wrote in message
...
Krista -- would you happen to know off hand where I can find some reading
material on this --- a net site or a book, or even a journal article will

be
fine.



This stuff is a bit old but still good:
http://www.cmcrossroads.com/bradapp/...ching_toc.html

A study on preworkout stretching and injury:
--------------------------
Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury:
a

critical review of the clinical and basic science literature.



Shrier, I


I located a PDF file of the full paper here (tables are formatted and
Fig 1. is shown):

http://www.cast.ilstu.edu/mccaw/HPR4...ury/Shrier.pdf

ff123
  #8  
Old December 9th 03, 12:00 AM
Wayne S. Hill
external usenet poster
 
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Default Stretching before Workout

ff123 wrote:

I located a PDF file of the full paper here (tables are
formatted and Fig 1. is shown):


Figure 1 is worth the download.

--
-Wayne
  #9  
Old December 9th 03, 12:42 AM
Lyle McDonald
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Default Stretching before Workout

Mistress Krista wrote:

:: Passive type stretches have been shown to diminish power output
:: temporarily, for at least an hour after performance.


Glancing through some of the studies, it looks like they are using some
pretty damned intensive stretching programs. Like 20-30 minutes of
static stretching for a single muscle group. I realize why they do that
(same reason they'll use retarded eccentric protocols) but it's hardly
indicative of normal training.

Do any of the studies use anything approximating 'normal' pre-workout
static stretching protocols (i.e. 30-90 seconds) and find the same results?

Lyle
  #10  
Old December 9th 03, 12:51 AM
Mistress Krista
external usenet poster
 
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Default Stretching before Workout


"Lyle McDonald" wrote in message
...
Mistress Krista wrote:


:: Passive type stretches have been shown to diminish power output
:: temporarily, for at least an hour after performance.


Glancing through some of the studies, it looks like they are using some
pretty damned intensive stretching programs. Like 20-30 minutes of
static stretching for a single muscle group. I realize why they do that
(same reason they'll use retarded eccentric protocols) but it's hardly
indicative of normal training.

Do any of the studies use anything approximating 'normal' pre-workout
static stretching protocols (i.e. 30-90 seconds) and find the same

results?



Good question. The study that always sticks in my mind is the MacDougall and
Sale study. But double checking it, I see that they used the long
stretching time too.

So maybe it comes down to the usual truism that non-retarded training
protocols are probably okay.


Krista


J Appl Physiol. 2000 Sep;89(3):1179-88. Related Articles, Links
Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human plantarflexors.
Fowles JR, Sale DG, MacDougall JD.
The purpose of this study was to assess strength performance after an acute
bout of maximally tolerable passive stretch (PS(max)) in human subjects. Ten
young adults (6 men and 4 women) underwent 30 min of cyclical PS(max) (13
stretches of 135 s each over 33 min) and a similar control period (Con) of
no stretch of the ankle plantarflexors. Measures of isometric strength
(maximal voluntary contraction), with twitch interpolation and
electromyography, and twitch characteristics were assessed before (Pre),
immediately after (Post), and at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after PS(max) or
Con. Compared with Pre, maximal voluntary contraction was decreased at Post
(28%) and at 5 (21%), 15 (13%), 30 (12%), 45 (10%), and 60 (9%) min after
PS(max) (P 0.05). Motor unit activation and electromyogram were
significantly depressed after PS(max) but had recovered by 15 min. An
additional testing trial confirmed that the torque-joint angle relation may
have been temporarily altered, but at Post only. These data indicate that
prolonged stretching of a single muscle decreases voluntary strength for up
to 1 h after the stretch as a result of impaired activation and contractile
force in the early phase of deficit and by impaired contractile force
throughout the entire period of deficit.


 




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