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rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8

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Old October 27th 04, 05:24 AM
Ozzie Gontang
external usenet poster
Posts: n/a
Default rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8

Archive-name: running-faq/part1
Last-modified: 10 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
info of sources or holder's of copyright.

================================================== ================
Part 1 of 8
What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group
Runner or Jogger
Avoiding Dogs
Books and Magazines
Winter Running Gear
Clothes (Winter/Summer)
Rules For Winter Running
Clothing Layers
Dressing for Winter
Clothing Materials
60/40 Cloth
Breathability of Materials
Breathable options
General Information
Running Mailing Lists
Terminology ( overpronation, oversupination)
Calorie/energy count
Calories burned by running
Muscle fuels used during exercise
Part 2 of 8
Fat burning primer
Conversion chart
Fluid replacement
Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries
Second Wind
Soda Pop
Computer software
Interval training
Sore Knees
Leg Massage
Part 3 of 8
Mail Order Addresses
Increasing your mileage
Major Marathons (e.g. Boston, LA, New York)
Part 4 of 8
Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries
Achilles tendinitis (incomplete)
Shin splints
Side stitches
Lactic Acid
Loose bowels
Diabetes & running
Nutrition and Food
Part 5 of 8
Nutrition primer
Powerbar Recipe
Predicting times
Running Clubs & Organizations
Part 6 of 8
Tredmill Running
Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude)
Part 7 of 8
Pregnancy & Running
Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People
Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)
Part 8 of 8
Running Related Internet Sites

================================================== ===============

What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group

Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make
sure to read a newsgroup for some time before you post to it. You'll be
amazed how often the same question can be asked in the same newsgroup.
After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to

The difference between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder.
Partial list compiled by Phil Margolies

Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with
an r, a u, and two n's. Otherwise there is no important difference that
I am aware of ;-)
There is no real distinction between the two. Traditionally joggers are
considered to be more casual and slower than someone who refers to
themselves as a runner. But use which ever term you prefer.
A jogger is person who worries about the difference.
A runner just goes out and runs.
This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ......

My gut feeling is:
if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or
race training)
if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running
if your focus is to lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else
(possibly indicated by wearing headphones?); you are jogging.

Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile.
No one of these three activities is any better or nobler than any other.
When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run. After all, it's all relative.
Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it.
Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the activity.
Runners are interested in the sport of racing.
The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and
a runner is a bib number.
A Jogger is everyone that I can pass.
A Runner is everone who passes me.
There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are
very positive activities & neither should be knocked. Here's a couple of
differences I notice:

Jogging is a hobby. Running is a way of life.
Joggers get out on a nice day. Runners get out everyday.

Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger )

There are varying degrees of defense against dogs.

1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than
half the time against most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport.

2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can.

3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them.

If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then
you in a heap o' trouble. In those situations, I've turned around, slowly,
not staring at the dog, and rode away.

"Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8

I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator
that you point at the dog. My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and
used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It seemed to cause the dog
to back off.

By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of
reagent grade ammonia, fresh out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you
remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big, mean dog that put its
cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner
(redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with
a lab squirt bottle of the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came
alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and mouth. The dog stopped dead
in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I
continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me

Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are
more than one of you. Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it
to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom line is to always *run* routes
that I'm not familiar with, with someone else.

E-Book John Lupton

Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via
http://www.gordonpirie.com . Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking.
All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice, having a pretty
straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by
jargon, is very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her
running shoes for the first time, it is worth reading this book (its *very*
short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner, but the bits
that are are very obvious and accessible.

Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon )


1) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes
2) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx
3) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom
4) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund
5) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard
6) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway
7) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson
8) The New Aerobics - Cooper
9) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe
10) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan
11) The Essential Runner (John Hanc)
12) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot)

check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore

RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K.

Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and
diet advice; marathon chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and
predicting times; plus table for paces to train for 2 mile pace for VO2
max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold.

Table of contents/list of contributors
or send a blank E-mail to


Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino
Real, Ste 606 Mountain View CA 94040
415-948-8188 Fax: 1-415-948-9445 1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725)

Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet
results in T&F, road racing, cross-country, and race walking from the high
school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes. though significant int'l
coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10
performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes
list of top 50 performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors
TAFNUT tours for major championships and the Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of
stats, good interviews.

Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as
Track & Field News.

The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important
articles on technique, training, and other practical information on all
events, at all levels. Intended for coaches.

California Track News ($18/yr)
4957 East Heaton
Fresno, CA 93727

Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep

Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744. Covers southeastern
United States monthly. Founded 1984. Covers road races in 13 states, plus
ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual subscription is $22.95.

Running Research News
P.O. Box 27041
Lansing, MI 48909
Credit card orders: 1-517-371-4897 MC/Visa accepted. e-mail:

12/96 $35/year $65/2 years (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.)
76 back issues, $265 (postage US 10 outside US $30)

(Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada) ALL non-US
customers please provide a credit card number or money order in U.S. funds,
or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank computer numbers).

Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511
Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691

Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574

Masters Track & Field News (5 issues/yr; $10.50) P.O. Box 16597
North Hollywood, CA 91615

Results, rankings, age-records, schedules, stories of age 40+ athletes
worldwide. "Satisfaction guaranteed"

"The Schedule" - A monthly magazine in California that has an extensive
lists of races and other info. Northern CA: 80 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael CA
94903-2038 (415) 472-7223; 472-7233 FAX Southern CA: 549 Highland Dr, San
Luis Obispo, CA 93405-1116 (805) 541-2833

Winter Running Gear Curt Peterson

13 Nov 1996 Just wear the same things for running as for cross country skiing.

Wind briefs -available in both womens and mens.
Underlayer turtleneck.
Underlayer long underwear
Tights ( thin or thicker cross country ski tights which are thicker wt.)
Wicking socks
vest or sweatshirt, but if long long run I use a Thermax sweatshirt
Shell for wind
hat and neck gator if really cold.
You can run in virtually all weather.
Our run group in Michigan runs every Monday night all year no matter
what the conditions are. I think -4 F is our record.

================================================== ================
Clothes (Winter/Summer) (Mike Gilson

Disclaimer What I have to say here is *my* opinion only.
Preference on amount of clothing required for winter running varies widely
among runners. A couple of runners that I see wear shorts, long sleeved T's
and gloves at 30F! Experiment with how much clothing at various temp's.

Rules for Winter Running

Rule 1: Dress in layers. Outer layers can be added/shed easily.
Rule 2: Stay dry. When clothes get wet,they don't performance - & you get cold.
Rule 3: Hydrate. You may not sweat as much, but fluid replacement still needed.

Clothing Layers
Inner layer. The layer closest to the skin should be a tight, lightweight
fabric that wicks water away from the skin. Shirts should be long-sleeved,
skin-tight (without chafing), and may be turtle-necked (my preference).
There are a variety of fabrics that are effective in wicking water; I have
had a lot of success with polypro, but it is not machine washable. These
are readily available at running specialty shops and mail order. For pants,
lycra running tights work very well.
Outer layer. The next layer should be a looser, mediumweight fabric that
wicks water. A zipper at the neck is convenient for temperature control. I
prefer a shirt that is slightly longer than waist-length so that I have the
option of tucking it into the pants. I've had more success in finding these
in cycling stores than anywhere else. Two layers of lycra tights if very

Shell. A water-proof or water resistant shell that is breathable is useful
in the coldest conditions. These are usually sold as suits, but tops are
available separately at a higher cost. Gore-tex is considered the best
fabric, but there are cheaper alternatives. You can get these suits made to
your measurements or buy them off the rack. I have a Burley jacket, which I
purchased at a cycling shop. It's chief advantage over the running suits is
the venting and extra zippers for temperature control. There are zippers
under each arm, starting at mid chest going up to the armpit and travelling
down the arm to about mid forearm.

Tights. Tights have been mentioned above as inner/outer layers. Many people
run in sweats, but sweats have two disadvantages: they're heavy and they
get heavier when wet. Lycra is lightweight and warm, but costs more and
shows off body (im)perfections more than sweats.

Gloves. Any cotton glove works. Polyproplyene or other microbfiber materials.

Hat. A lot of heat is lost through the scalp, so a hat is a must for most
people. Cotton hats get too heavy with sweat. Balaclavas are more versatile
than hats, and allow you to cover you neck/face if requires. Both hats and
balaclavas are available in wicking fabrics.

Socks. A wicking sock will seem less heavy and your feet will be drier than
a conventional sock. Coolmax socks are my preference, worn in a single
layer. You can also find other fabrics, such as capilene or polypro socks,
which are considerably more expensive.

Running shoes. Runner's World (anyone know which issue?) had some tips from
Alaskan runners on how to put (short) screws into the sole of the shoe for
better traction on the ice. I haven't tried it, but you obviously have to
be careful not to puncture the midsole, air/gel chambers, etc.

Dressing for Winter Running

Temp range Number of layers
(degrees F) Inner Outer Shell Tights Gloves Hat Socks
50-55 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
40-45 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
30-35 1 1 0 1-2 1 1 1
20-25 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
0-15 1 1 1/pants 1 1 1

Clothing Materials
compiled by Ozzie Gontang

Man-made: available in acrylic, nylon, polyester and rayon.

* Washable, dry cleanable Shrink-resistant
* High strength (except Rayon) Insulates well against wind, rain, cold
Major End Uses: sportswear, activewear,swimwear, outerwear, rainwear.

Micro-fibers is not a fiber unto itself. It is a technology developed to
produce an ultra-fine fiber, and then weave it or knit it into a very high
quality fabric constructions. DuPont introduced the first microfiber in
1989, a polyester microfiber. Today in addition to polyester microfibers,
there are also nylon microfibers that have become important in the
pantyhose market, rayon microfibers, and acrylic microfibers.

An important characteristic of microfiber fabrics: they can be woven so
tightly so the fabric can't be penetrated by wind, rain, or cold. For this
reason, raincoat manufacturers have become big users of polyester
microfibers. Microfibers also have a wicking ability, which allows
perspiration to pass through. So they're comfortable to wear.

Nov. '96 RW (pp.48-52) evaluted 12 underlayer shirts for keeping you
comfortable wicking away sweat to the exterior surface of the fabric.
Polyester has been treated (hydrophillic chemical) and altered
(electrostatic evaporation process, differing inner/outer surfaces) to
enhance its wicking ability.

Some names: Capilene, BiPolar 100 polyester, BiPolar 200 polyester, Dri-F.I.T.
Dacron is the trademark name for Dupont polyester. Woven fabric made from
dacron is similar to nylon ripstop or taffeta, but not as stretchy. Many of
the better clothing insulations are made from dacron. They are usually
referred to by more specific trademark names, like quallofil, hollofil,
polarguard, and dacron-88.


* Lightweight, lightest fiber, it floats
* Strong
* Abrasion resistant, resilient
* Stain-, static-, sunlight-, and odor-resistant
* High insulation characteristics
* Resists deterioration from chemicals, mildew, sweat, rot and weather
* Fast drying
* High wickability
* Static and pilling can be a problem
* Ironing, washing/drying need to be done at low temperature
* Non-allergenic
Major End Uses: Apparel - activewear, sportswear, jeans, socks,
underwear, lining fabrics.

Of all fibers, this is probably least familiarto you. Developed in 1961,
polyolefin has been used exclusively in the home furnishings and high
performance activewear market: backpacking, canoeing, mountain climbing
apparel. In 1996 producers of olefin began to make in-roads into the
mainstream apparel market. It is being blended with cotton in the denim
market. It's being tested in the swimwear market. Asics Japan has developed
a swimsuit made of polyolefin and Lycra for the Japanese Olympic Swim Team.
Polyolefin is the least absorbent of all the man-made fibers, and the only
fiber that floats. (Swimmers will do anything to cut a milli-second off
their times!)


* Lightweight * Exceptional strength
* Good drapeability * Abrasion resistant
* Easy to wash * Resists shrinkage and wrinkling
* Fast drying, low moisture absorbency
* Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals
* Static and pilling can be a problem
* Poor resistance to continuous sunlight
Major End Uses:
* Apparel - swimwear, activewear, foundation garments, hosiery,
blouses, dresses, sportswear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel,
windbreakers, childrenswear.
* Other-Luggage/back packets/life vests/umbrellas/sleeping bags,tents.

Nylon is one of the strongest of all fibers, and for this reason it's used
in garments that take a great deal of hard wear, like panty hose, swimwear,

Although nylon is a very strong fiber, one of it's unfavorable
characteristics is that it has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to the
sun. In addition, the Lycra (or spandex) breaks down from exposure to
chlorine in pool water. Lycra is used for its stretch.

Supplex has a feel of cotton,comfortable, breathable and water repellent/
NOT water proof). Absorbs a small amount of water if it is getting drenched.

WOOL Natural, Animal fiber

* Comfortable * Luxurious, soft hand
* Versatile * Lightweight
* Good insulator * Washable
* Wrinkle-resistant * Absorbent
Major End Uses:
* Apparel - sweaters, dresses, coats, suits, jackets, pants, skirts,
childrenswear, loungewear, blouses, shirts, hosiery, scarves.

A teflon based membrane with microscopic holes. Gortex's claim to fame is
that it will let water vapor (from perspiration) through, but not liquid
water (rain). It blocks wind fairly well too. The membrane is delicate, so
it always comes laminated between 2 layers of other material. It does not
breathe enough. There are less expensive alternatives.

Does not wick very well. Can be uncomfortable. Troublesome to care for
(e.g. can pill badly) Will keep you fairly warm if soaked. Not very wind
resistant. Shrinks under heat from dryers. Thermax is an improvement on
Polypropylene. The big advantage is that Thermax isheat resistance so you
can put it in the dryer. Balance that against the extra cost.

60/40 CLOTH
This is a cloth with nylon threads running one direction, cotton in the
other. It was the standard wind parka material before Goretex came along,
and is considerably less expensive. Good wind resistance, fairly
breathable. Somewhat water resistant, especially if you spray it with
Scotchguard, but won't hold up to a heavy rain.

Breathability of Materials
summarized from Clive Tully UK Outdoor/Travel Writer

Breathability in waterproof clothing is one of the most misunderstood and
misrepresented technical aspects of outdoors clothing and equipment. It's
all very well listing the technical merits of a particular fabric, coating
or membrane. Too often, the design of the finished garment either makes or
breaks the fabric manufacturer's claim. E.g., a walking jacket with a
permanently vented shoulder flap might as well be made of non-breathable
PU. It can't maintain the partial pressure which makes the fabric work. The
exception is Gore-Tex fabric. Garment manufacturers using their fabrics
have to submit sample products for Gore to check they meet their laid down
standards of manufacture. Not many fabric manufacturers do that, but then,
not many have such a tight grip on their markets.

The Breathable options

Breathable waterproof fabrics operate by one of two ways.They're
microporous, with microscopic pores which permit the passage of water
vapour but not water liquid, or they're hydrophilic, a solid barrier but
capable of absorbing moisture vapour and passing it through its structure.
Either may come as coatings applied directly to a fabric, or membranes
which are glued to the fabric which carries it. Then there are microfibre
fabrics and cotton fabrics.

The top end of the market is dominated by Gore-Tex, and like some of the
other laminates on offer, it comes in a variety of forms. The original, and
still the best for durability, is 3-layer, where the breathable waterproof
membrane is sandwiched between a facing and lining fabric. Garments made of
this tend to be good value, too, because the manufacturing processes aren't
so complex. 2-layer is softer, with the membrane glued to the underside of
the facing fabric, and a loose lining. Not so durable, but usually more
breathable, and more expensive. Other varieties, laminate the membrane to a
lining fabric with loose outer - nice for fashion garments, and sometimes
the waterproof lining has loose outer and lining on either side - again,
more complex constructions generally adding up to more expensive garments.
And the outside pockets will let in water...

A coating is a coating, or is it? Breathable PU nylon doesn't really mean
an awful lot. Individual coatings can have their chemistry tinkered with to
make them more breathable or more waterproof. Cheaper coatings may be
applied in one pass over the fabric, more expensive performance coatings
may be made up of several thinner applications.

You'd expect breathable waterproof fabric to work reasonably well in dry
conditions, provided you're not working so hard as to overload its
capability to transport moisture. The real crunch is when it's raining. How
much does it breathe after 5 hours in pouring rain? Tests showed that all
fabrics lose an element of breathability in wet conditions. The various
configurations of Gore-Tex lost between 34 and 43% of their breathability,
Sympatex 31% on a Z-liner construction, 70% in a double layer. Helly-Tech's
decline was just short of 75%, but perhaps the biggest surprise was Lowe
Alpine's Triple Point Ceramic 1200, losing just 15%.

Whatever the coating or laminate, the facing fabric and its water-repellent
surface treatment is absolutely critical. It's fair to say that the coarse
texturised facing fabrics will fare less well than smooth ones because of a
larger surface area to grab water when the water repellent treatment wears


It is a misconception that a lining is an aid to breathability. It isn't.
It won't make any improvement. As an extra layer of insulation, it will
make condensation inside the jacket MORE likely. What it does is improve
the comfort factor by putting a layer between you and any condensation
which may form on the shiny underside of your coating or membrane. 2-layer
Gore-Tex would be just too fragile without a loose lining to protect it. In
other instances, it's used to mask what's going on (or rather, not) at the
point of greatest resistance!

A mesh lining can achieve the same effect with less resistance to the
passage of water vapour - looks nice too, even if it is a bit of a pain
with Velcro - but the best functional designs will still employ a smooth
lining fabric down the arms to avoid drag over your fleece. But if the mesh
is to do the same job for a poor breathable coating or membrane as a close
weave lining fabric, it has to be made from an absorbent or wicking fibre,
otherwise, there's not much point in having the lining at all.

Whether you have an expensive membrane or an inexpensive coating lurking
behind the face fabric of your jacket, the moment the fabric "wets out",
you're in danger of anything from drastically reducing performance to
turning your jacket into something with the breathability of a bin liner.
It's easy to see when this happens. The water no longer beads up and rolls
off the surface of the fabric, and you'll see it soaking into the material
in patches. The fabric is still waterproof (apart from pressure points -
see above), but its breathability will be greatly impaired. The answer is
to keep your jacket clean, following any washing instructions to the
letter, and maintain the water repellent finish on the outside.

General Information

Running Mailing Lists

T & F Mailing List
For details send email to: (Derrick

The Track and Field Mailing List is a world wide network of athletes,
coaches, sports scientists, officials, and track and field enthusiasts.
Many national class athletes from several nations subscribe. The list
provides rapid dissemination of results, discussion of track and field
topics, and a source for inquiry about track and field events.

Terminology: Pronation/Supination (Tom Page

"Over" pronation describes a minor misalignment of the leg's forward swing
that causes the footstrike to be skewed to the inside of the heel.

"Over" supination is the reverse - impact is shifted toward the outside of
the heel. (Jim Horalek)

Pronation and supination describe natural and normal motions of the foot
during the walking or running stride. In a normal stride, the outside
portion of the heal strikes the ground first. The foot pronates to absorbe
shock. That is, it rolls inward. At the end of the stride, the foot
re-supinates -- rolls outward-- on push-off.

What the previous writer (Jim Horalek
) is defining is
`over pronation', and `over supination'. These are excesses of the normal
motions. Note that over pronation is fairly common and many shoes are
designed to counteract this. Over supination is very rare. Most people who
think they over supinate probably just under pronate. Some people who think
they over pronate may in fact pronate a normal amount, but fail to
re-supinate sufficiently at the end of the stride.

Calorie/Energy Count
(Kenrick J. Mock

Here is a little table adapted from "Beyond Diet...Exercise Your Way to
Fitness and Heart Health" by Lenore R. Zohman, M.D.

Energy Range = Approx. Calories Per Hour

Energy Range Activity Conditioning Benefits

72-84 Sitting, Conversing None

120-150 Strolling, 1 mph Not strenuous enough to produce endurance
Walking, 2 mph your exercise capacity is very low

150-240 Golf, power cart. Not sufficiently taxing or continuous to
promote endurance.

240-300 Cleaning windows Adequate for conditioning if carried out
Mopping floor continuously for vacuuming 20-30 minutes
Bowling Too intermittent for endurance
Walking, 3mph Adequate dynamic exercise if
Cycling, 6mph your capacity is low
Golf, pulling cart Useful if you walk briskly,if cart is heavy
isometrics may be involved.

300-360 Scrubbing floors Adequate if done in at least 2 minute stints
Walking, 3.5 mph Usually good dynamic aerobic exercise
Cycling, 8 mph
Ping Pong Vigorous continuous play can
Badminton have endurance benefits. May aid skill.
Tennis, doubles Not beneficial unless there is continuous play
for at least 2 minutes at a time. Aids skill.

360-420 Walking, 4mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial.
Cycling, 10mph
Skating Should be continuous

420-480 Walking, 5mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial.
Cycling, 11mph
Tennis, singles Benefit if played 30 minutes or more with an
attempt to keep moving
Water Skiing Total isometrics

480-600 Jogging, 5 mph Dynamic, aerobic, endurance
Cycling, 12mph building exercise.
Downhill skiing Usually too short to help endurance
Paddleball Not sufficiently continuous for aerobic

600-660 Running, 5.5 mph Excellent conditioner.
Cycling, 13 mph

Over 660 Running, 6+ mph Excellent conditioner
Handball, Squash Conditioning benefit if played 30 min or more.
Swimming (wide Good conditioning exercise caloric
Calories burned by running
(Rob Lingelbach

Here is a table I clipped from Runner's World; the source listed
is "Exercise & Physiology" (Lea & Febiger, 1986). At 70% of max.

Pace (minutes per mile)
12:00 10:43 9:41 8:46 8:02 7:26 6:54 6:26 6:02
Wt(lbs) Calories burned per hour running
100 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
119 432 486 540 594 648 702 756 810 864
128 464 522 580 638 696 754 812 870 928
137 496 558 620 682 744 806 868 930 992
146 528 594 660 726 792 858 924 990 1056
154 560 630 700 770 840 910 980 1050 1120
163 592 666 740 814 888 962 1036 1110 1184
172 624 702 780 858 936 1014 1092 1170 1248
181 656 738 820 902 984 1066 1148 1230 1312
190 688 774 860 946 1032 1118 1204 1290 1376
199 720 810 900 990 1080 1170 1260 1350 1440
207 752 846 940 1034 1128 1222 1316 1410 1504
216 784 882 980 1078 1176 1274 1372 1470 1568
225 816 918 1020 1122 1224 1326 1428 1530 1632
234 848 954 1060 1166 1272 1378 1484 1590 1696
Muscle Fuels Used During Exercise
Stuart )

There are 3 main fuels used during exercise by the contracting muscle: 1)
Protein; 2) Carbohydrate; 3) Fat.

PROTEIN: A majority of text books written will not acknowledge
protein as a major fuel, and it likely is not. It should be pointed out
that protein requirements of someone who is running/exercising on a
regular basis are GREATER than those of a sedentary population. Is this
something to worry about? Most "North American" diets contain more protein
than is needed. So the bottom
line is you get more than you need so don't worry. Vegetarians? Again the
answer is likely yes, they also get enough protein. Even when consuming a
pure protein diet there is enough protein to more than cover the needs of
a person who regularly runs/exercises. Moreover, most vegetarians are
aware of what they eat and plan their diets very well.

FUELS: Fats and carbohydrates (CHOs are then the major fuel sources
for the exercising person. The balance of the use of these fuels is
dependant upon exercise intensity and duration (the two are inversly
related). The general rule is that the lower the intensity the greater the
energy cost of exercise can be covered by fat. Hence, the greater the
exercise duration the more fat will be burned, usually because the
intensity of one's workout will decrease - FATIGUE! The flip side then, is
that during higher intensity exercise (70% of max), one relies heavily on

Old October 27th 04, 05:24 AM
Ozzie Gontang
external usenet poster
Posts: n/a

Archive-name: running-faq/part2
Last-modified: 13 Dec 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

SOURCES: Fats are stored as adipose, body fat, and muscle fat
(triglycerides). CHOs are stored as muscle and liver glycogen (long chains
of glucose) and blood glucose.
During a workout the early phases are characterized by a reliance
on CHOs, both muscle glycogen and blood glucose. The blood glucose comes
from the breakdown of liver glycogen. Again this is dependent upon
intensity (see above). However, the muscle can also use fat as a fuel, The
sources of this are from the inside of the muscle or from the outside -
i.e. from adipose tissue. The problem is that levels of fats from adipose
take a while to reach high enough levels for their use to become
significant. Their concentration in the blood only reaches very high
levels when the intensity of the exercise is low (i.e. 50% of max or less)
and if the duration is sufficient (1 hour or more). However, when the
concentration of fats from outside of the muscle is high enough the muscle
can use these instead of glycogen and delay the use of glycogen, this is
critical at times since muscle glycogen is a "rate-limiting" fuel for
muscle. That is when muscle glycogen runs out, or gets very low, then you
feel terrible - you've BONKED or HIT THE WALL (see below).

BONKING/HITTING THE WALL: Lots of people talk about the phenomenon
of bonking. It hits some people harder than others, I don't know why and
have never seen any good information why? However, bonking is a
combination of two processes. The first is a lack of muscle glycogen (see
above). The second is low blood glucose. When muscle glycogen is low the
muscle runs into a fuel crisis. It cannot burn fats at a rate high enough
to sustain the muscle's maximal output. The consequence is that your
muscle switches to burning more fats and so you have to slow down. The
crappy feeling that you experience at the same time, often characterized
by nausea and disorientation, is likely a consequence of low blood
sugar/glucose (hypoglycemia).

The trick then is to alleviate/delay the onset of these symptoms by
consuming sugar solutions, or simply by becoming so well trained that you
don't have to worry (see TRAINING below). Why is low blood sugar bad?
Because your brain, eye tissue, and others are able to burn only glucose.
That is when the levels of glucose are low your brain runs out of fuel, so
you feel awful. Your vision might become impaired also.

FATS vs. CHOs: However, as I've said above your muscle can burn
fats and if given the chance your muscle will burn whatever fuel it has in
the greatest abundance, even lactate! So, if supplied with enough fat
muscle can burn fat and hence, "spare" muscle glycogen. This is the idea
behind many runners drinking caffeine/coffee before a race. The caffeine
has effects that cause release of fats from adipose tissue and the level
of fats in the blood increases. The end result is that for the early
phases of the race the runner's muscle's can use fat and delay the use of
muscle glycogen, hence, sparing that glycogen for later use.

One should be cautioned, however, that this mechanism for increasing fat
usage has only been shown with some very high doses of caffeine that are
not achievable without taking caffeine pills. It also critically dependent
upon the person's habitual caffeine intake ("big" coffee drinker appear
not to derive as great of a benefit as non-habitual users). There are
other ways to maximize the use of muscle glycogen, however.

CHO LOADING: CHO loading is a practice that many athletes use
before a longer duration event to "supercompensate" their muscles with
glycogen, delay it's running out (see above). The practice is of little
use when the duration of the event is less than 60 minutes, since muscle
glycogen will usually be able to meet the demands of such a duration.
However, it should be noted that repeated bouts of high intensity exercise
will also deplete one's muscles of glycogen (for example wrestling 3-4
bouts in one day).

There are two basic protocols for CHO loading, one is just as good as the
other. However, they involve an initial bout of exercise to deplete the
muscle's glycogen (under normal dietary conditions), followed by a period
of high CHO diet (i.e. 70% or more of one's total calories from CHO). This
period should be the 4-5 days prior to the event and should be a time when
the athlete tapers their training, so as not to deplete muscle glycogen
too much. The result is an overload of glycogen in one's muscles.

Two notes: 1) This procedure will result, if done correctly, in most
people gaining 2-5 pounds. Why? Because muscle and liver glycogen is
stored with water and increasing glycogen will increase water content -
i.e. increased weight is water. 2) Preliminary evidence indicates that
this procedure is less effective in women. That is to say that if a female
runner were to increase her CHOs to 70% (or ) of her caloric intake she
may not have an increase in muscle glycogen. Why? It may relate to a
gender difference in the ability to store muscle glycogen or in the amount
of CHOs that 70% of the female athlete's diet represents (i.e. 70% of a
2000 calorie diet would be 1400 Cal from CHO, eating this may not be
enough to increase muscle glycogen content). Stay tuned for more info here!

TRAINING: When one trains or conditions by completing endurance
exercise changes occur at many levels, including the muscle. The changes
that occur at the level of the muscle include an increased ability to
utilize fats. Not surprisingly then one's endurance is increased. How? An
increased utilization of fats means less reliance on glycogen, less
reliance on glycogen means you don't run out of the fuel that allows you
to maintain a high rate of muscle contraction, and hence a high rate of
running/exercising. Another adaptation that occurs is that your muscle
uses less glucose, this is important for tissues such as brain (see

Conversion chart (Jack Berkery )

1 yard = .9144 meter
100 yards = 91.4400 meters
220 yards = 201.1680 meters
440 yards = 402.3360 meters
880 yards = 804.6720 meters

1 meter = 1.094 yards
100 meters = 109.400 yards
200 meters = 218.800 yards
400 meters = 437.600 yards
800 meters = 875.200 yards

1 mile = 1.609 Kilometers
1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
1 Kilometer = .6214 miles = 1094 yards = 3281 feet

Kilmoeters to miles Miles to Kilometers
------------------------------------------------------ 1 km = .6214 miles
1 mile = 1.609 km
2 km = 1.2418 miles 2 miles = 3.218 km
3 km = 1.8642 miles 3 miles = 4.827 km
4 km = 2.4856 miles 4 miles = 6.436 km
5 km = 3.1070 miles 5 miles = 8.045 km
6 km = 3.7284 miles 6 miles = 9.654 km
7 km = 4.3498 miles 7 miles = 11.263 km
8 km = 4.9712 miles 8 miles = 12.872 km
9 km = 5.5926 miles 9 miles = 14.481 km
10 km = 6.2140 miles 10 miles = 16.090 km 11 km = 6.8354 miles 11 miles =
17.699 km 12 km = 7.4568 miles 12 miles = 19.308 km 13 km = 8.0782 miles 13
miles = 20.917 km 14 km = 8.6996 miles 14 miles = 22.526 km 15 km = 9.3210
miles 15 miles = 24.135 km 20 km = 12.4280 miles 20 miles = 32.180 km 25 km
= 15.5350 miles 25 miles = 40.225 km 30 km = 18.6420 miles

1 marathon = 26 miles + 385 yards = 42.186 km

Fluid replacement (2 personal methods)

As an ultramarathoner, trail runner fluid replenishment etc. is quite
important. My findings, based on personal experience, is that in 90+ degree
weather I use a liter per hour on a one hour run - and that is carrying the
water with me. If you are not running enough distance, dont be concerned
about energy type drinks, and you probably don't lose enough salts to need
electrolytes. But your system will absorb more fluid faster is it is
hypotonic and cool. If you guys are always running for 45 minutes or an
hour in HOT weather - I would really suggest carrying water. When you
realize your dehydrated its TOO late - and it takes longer to replenish
fluids than it does to lose them. (Milt Schol

I prepare for a run with about 24-30 ounces of lukewarm water within 3
hours of the run. As for after the run, if it was particularly strenuous
(and in the 85+ and humid Pittsburgh weather of late, the runs have been
strenuous for me), within 10-15 minutes following the run, I take ~10-15
ounces of room-temperature, diluted Exceed (about 2 parts Exceed to 3 parts
water). I follow that with about 24-30 ounces of room-temperature water
over the next hour or two. (Barbara Zayas

Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries (John Schwebel

Ten Laws of Running Injuries stated therein:

Running Injuries Are Not an Act of God

Each Running Injury Progresses
Through Four Grades

Each Running Injury Indicates That the
Athlete Has Reached the Breakdown Point

Virtually All Running Injuries Are Curable

X-Rays and Other Sophisticated Investigations Are Seldom Necessary to
Diagnose Running Injuries

Treat the Cause, Not the Effect

Rest is Seldom the Most Appropriate Treatment

Never Accept as a Final Opinion
the Advice of a Nonrunner

Avoid the Knife

There Is No Definitive Scientific Evidence That Running Causes
Osteoarthritis in Runners Whose Knwees Were Normal When They Started

Second Wind (Newsweek July 27, '92)

If an Olympian experiences a second wind, it's probably a sign that he
isn't in a great shape. Scientists are divided over whether a second wind
is purely psychological - the athlete "willing" himself forward. But if it
has a physical basis too, the sudden feeling of "I can do it!" right after
"I want to die" probably reflects a change in metabolism. The body gets
energy by breaking down glucose, which is stored in muscles. This reaction
releases lactic acid, which the body must burn in order to prevent a
lactic-acid buildup that causes cramps. Burning lactic acid requires
oxygen. If the body does not breathe in enough oxygen; the runner
experiences oxygen debt: the heart beats more quickly; the lungs gasp; the
legs slow. The second wind, says physicist Peter Brancazio of Brooklyn
College, may come when the body finally balances the amount of oxygen
coming in with that needed to burn the lactic acid. (When burned, lactic
acid is transformed into sweat and carbon dioxide.) Why doesn't everybody
get a second wind? Couch potatoes don't push themselves past oxygen debt;
true Olympians have enough lung capacity and cardiovascular fitness to
avoid oxygen debt in the first place.

Soda Pop (Paulette Leeper

Q: Does anyone have any opinions on Soda pop as a drink in General.

I find the CAFFEINE in soda to be irritating and DEHYDRATING, so, IMHO,
drinking soda with caffeine (regardless of whether or not it contains sugar
or aspartame) defeats the purpose of quenching thirst. It's much like
drinking beer to quench thirst... it FEELS good, and TASTES good, but as a
mechanism for hydration, it does the exact opposite.

Computer Software (Jack Berkery
) (Paul Gronke,

There is a Shareware program in the WUSTL archives available through
anonymous ftp. (also on other archive sites) Look into
.../msdos/database/joggr105.zip I didn't exactly like it but it may suit
your style. It works with CGA/EGA/VGA graphics. Don't know how it functions
under windows.

ntu.ac.sg []

AEROBIX.ZIP B 81246 910420 Fitness Log: Record aerobic exercise/progres
JOGGR105.ZIP B 59053 920312 Runner's log and analysis database, v1.05
PT100.ARC B 175592 890914 Physical Training test scorekeeper database
RUNLOG.ZIP B 71801 900308 Runner's/bicycler's workout log

All programs are available in the DATABASE directory on Simtel, via
anonymous FTP. There are a number of Simtel mirrors, including
WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (dir = mirrors/msdos/database), OAK.OAKLAND.EDU (dir =
pub/msdos/database), and a lot of non US sites.

RunCoach helps coach people who are running, jogging or racing. It is
based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and can produce an optimum
training program tailored to the individual. If you are just starting to
run, want to enter a fun run or are an expert runner and want to improve
your time then RunCoach can help. First you enter some data about
yourself, then set a goal race (or ask RunCoach to suggest one), tell
RunCoach when you can train and RunCoach will quickly generate a
personalised training schedule. It will also estimate how likely you are
to succeed at your goal. Ver 0.90 was the first public release and can be
found as RUNCOACH.ZIP. Ver 0.94 (RUNCO94B.ZIP) is the latest (july 95)
release. It works in both miles or kms, has a better understanding of the
taper, has a built in series of running guides and has a built in sports
psych, so you can discuss any problems. It is available from a number of
FTP sites but as an example try Simtel: oak.oakland.edu

Its running knowledge is extensive and includes the following:-
- internally classifies runners into five major groups
- takes into account age, experience, PB's, sex, training program etc
- able to select days of the week you can run, and your long run day
- provides feedback on whether you are capable of meeting your goal time
- can suggest goal's based on your individual ability
- provides a schedule even if Run Coach is sceptical you can reach your goal
- knows about VO2 max, anaerobic threshold, efficiency, long runs etc
- has many rules for minimising injury
- has a variety of individualised speedwork schedules built in
- understands periodisation & complex schedules & selects between them
- can predict race results for distances not previously run
- can produce a schedule for the complete beginner through to the elite

RUNLOG.ZIP - I found this to be a barely usable program. It was not at all
clear what I needed to enter at any of the prompts. There was no help key.
There was no information telling me what format any times, distances, etc.
need to be entered as. This does have a time prediction module. The
interface is kind of nice. There are graphical displays of improvement,
heart rate, etc. With a better manual expaining what you need to enter, I
would rate is usable. At present, I found the other programs nicer. If you
figure out what need to be entered where, you can use this program.

JOGGR105.ZIP - This is a program of British origin. The interface is kind
of interesting. It has most of the data entry options that you would want.
It will graphically display your improvement. You can control the menu of
courses so that you don't have to reenter distance and course info each
time. Most annoying problem: everythin is in British units, so that you
have to convert 100 meter dash, 5K, 10K, etc. into milage. This might not
be a drawback for some; it is a major drawback for me. The data entry,
printing is all nice. It escapes from errors well (unlike Runlog, which
tends to bomb). This is definitely usable.

RUNSTA11.ZIP - I really like this program and will continue to use it. It
is by far the largest of the programs (300K zipped, 3 times the size of the
others), so you might go for another if disk space is a problem. However,
you get a full featured training / racing log for the space. What I like
about it: 1) you can make it as complex or simple as possible. Via config
options, you can enter for each race/training: shoes, weather, heart rate,
health, hilliness, race surface, temp, calories...or none of these,
depending on your preference. 2) You can easily set up a menu of courses to
choose from in the race *and* training run entry 3) Race and Training are
kept separate, a very nice feature if you want to track training runs and
racing in the same database. 4) Multiple database files easily used,
special configs are unique to each database file (meaning that you can
monitor bicycle, running in the same program) 5) Can display data entries
(runs) in a "calendar" format, then select the ones you wish to examine
with a keystroke 6) Nice graphical displays

Drawbacks: requires more memory than the other programs. Might not run on
pre-286 machines, but I don't know. More disk space required. Not sure if
it does time forecasting, I need to check.

RUNSTAT3 Ver.3.0, Jan. 1995 by Scott Diamond

RunStat3 is a Windows program useful to runners The program's main
window is a pace calculator. You enter distance and time for your run
and RunStat3 calculates your pace for your run and finishing times for
a large set of distances and times. E.g., if you ran a 10k run,
RunStat3 would list finishing times for 1 mile, 5k, 10k, 1/2 marathon,
marathon, etc (you can add your own custom entries). Two listing for
finishing times are presented, one based on running at constant pace
and a 'realistic' estimate which accounts for slowing your pace the
longer you run.

RunStat3 also supports an ascii logbook in which users can keep a
record of all their runs. RunStat3 includes a searching, plotting and
statistics calculator so that you can search your log book and plot
all your times for a given course, or total your mileage for each pair
of shoes or make other plots. There is almost no limit to the number
of entries you can place in your log file for tracking your runs (e.g
temp., wt, avg. heart rate, course, shoes, etc.)

The program is freeware. For more information, set your web-browser to:

================================================== =========================


From: Dweezil the Butt Beaker Subject: Rules
of Hashing (one version, Rule Six) Organization: Orlando Hash House

X-Hhh: A Drinking Club With A Running Problem. X-Hhh-Motto: If you have
half a mind to hash, that's all you need. X-Hhh-Philosophy: Carpe
Cerevisiam X-Oh3-Motto: We get drunk, we get naked, we give hashing a bad
name. X-O2H3-Motto: We have beer, we have cookies, we give hashing a nice
name. X-Dbh3-Motto: Daytona Beach Hash House Harriers never run out of
beer. X-Dbh3-Motto: We have beer before, during, and after the hash.

The Hash House Harriers is a running/drinking/social club which was started
by bored expatriates in Kuala Lumpuer, Malaysia in 1938. ("Hash House" is
the nickname of the restaurant/bar to which they retired for food and beer
after a run.) Hashing is based on the English schoolboy game of "Hare and
Hounds"; a Hash is a non-competitive cross-country run set by one or more
runners called hares. The hares run out in advance of the other runners
(the pack of hounds), and set a course marked by white flour, toilet paper,
and/or chalk marks.

Hash Rules

1. A HASHMARK is a splash of flour used to mark the trail. The pack should
call out "On-On" when they see a hashmark. Blasts on horns, whistles, and
other noise makers are encouraged. Hounds asking "RU?" (are you on trail?)
of the FRB's (Front-Running *******s) should be answered "On-On", which
means they are on trail, or "Looking", which means they`ve lost the trail.

2. ARROWs, or several closely spaced hashmarks, are used to indicate change
of trail direction. Hound should use arrows different from those used by
the hares as necessary to assist hounds further back in the pack.

3. A CHECKMARK is a large circled X, or a circle with a dot at its center
(fondly known as a "Titty Check"). Checkmarks indicate that the trail goes
"SFP"; that is, the pack must search for true trail. Hounds should call out
"Checking" when they see a checkmark. (Checking IS NOT Looking!)

4. A Backtrack is three lines chalked or drawn in flour across the trail,
indicating a false trail. The pack, upon encountering a backtrack, calls
out "On-Back" or "Backtrack", and goes back to the last checkmark to find
true trail. Sometimes a hound will draw an arrow with a backtrack sign at
the checkmark to identify the false trail for the rest of the pack.

A CHECKBACK is a devious variation of the checkmark/backtrack. A checkback
is a CB followed by a number. For example, a "CB 5" means to backtrack five
hashmarks, then look for true trail as one would at a check. Also known as

A WHICHWAY is two arrows, only one of which points toward true trail; no
hashmarks will be found in the other direction.

5. Tradition requires a DOWN-DOWN (chug-a-lug) of a beer after a hasher's
virgin hash, naming hash, and other significant occasions, e.g., 25th hash,
50th hash, etc. A Down-Down is also in order for hares, visitors, and for
any other reason that can be thought up. While frowned upon as "alcohol
abuse", it is permissible for non- drinkers to pour the beer over their
head; a soda Down-Down may also be elected. The primary consideration of
the Down-Down is that once the mug leaves the drinker's lips, it is turned
upside-down over the head.


================================================== =========================
Interval training )

First off, keep in mind that the interval part of the run is the rest part.
This is where your body recovers and strengthens itself.

Secondly, say your goal is to run an 8 minute/mile 10k. Start your
intervals by doing 5X400m at a little under 2 minutes per rep. You'll see
that an 8min mile is a 2min 400, so to better that, you run a little
faster, as I said. Walk or jog between the rep (this is the interval).
Remember to keep with what you started at. If you jogged to rest, don't
walk during the next interval.

Intervals should be challenging, but not defeating. If you are having
problems maintaining your form during the course of the whole run, you are
doing too much. You should feel good at the end of your run, not ready to
drop dead.

Remember to warmup and cool down sufficiently before and after intervals.
10 minutes of jogging is suggested.

Other things to remember: you can customize intervals to achieve different
things. For example, to increase endurance, you can decrease your interval
while running the same rep. Or you can increase the rep and still do the
same interval. You can work on speed by running faster reps. There are
other variations as well, but I don't remember all of them.

Lastly, make sure you have a good aerobic base when you start, and don't do
too much too fast. You can tire your muscles out, and it will take a while
to recover.

Your goal is to exercise your fast twitch muscles, those used for speed.
I've been doing intervals for about 2 months now, and it has made a
difference. The first race I ran after starting intervals, my time dropped
by about 15 seconds. I have a race tomorrow, and am hoping to improve on
that. I also notice I have more pep in my regular workouts. I get out
there, and once I'm warmed up, my body wants to run fast.

================================================== =========================


Sore knees ( Elizabeth Doucette )

When running (also walking, and cycling), the inner most quad. muscle
(inner part of thigh) does not get exercised as much as the other three
quad. muscles of the thigh. If this inner muscle isn't strengthened by
specific exercises, an imbalance of the muscles may occur. This can cause
irritation of the underside of the kneecap (chondromalacia patellae)
because the imbalance of the muscles can pull the kneecap towards the
outside of the leg.

The kneecap (which has two convex faces on the back) rides in a broad
indentation on the femur. Weak inner quadriceps (M. Vastus medialis) can
pull the kneecap slightly out of its "track"; and it is theorized that this
is what causes chondromalacia (which I believe is called patellofemoral
pain syndrome these days). [edited for correctness 2/19/95 by
[email protected] mail.cornell.edu (Lucie Melahn)]

I had chondromalacia patellae for a long time (and many of my running
friends did too) but I haven't had problems since I've been doing specific
exercises for my inner quad. muscle. It is tedious and boring but it works.
I haven't had knee problems for about 3 years now :-). I should do this
every day, whether I work out or not, but I don't always. If I feel any
discomfort at all in my knees, I make sure I'm more diligent with this
exercise and the discomfort always disappears. I'm always able to prevent a
problem now.

The exercise is just a leg raise with the foot flexed and pointing away
from the body. With this exercise make sure that your back is supported. As
your quad. muscles fatigue, there is a tendency to help out with your back
muscles. You may not realize that you're doing this until you notice later
that your back is a little sore.

Sitting on the floor, bend one leg (like you're going to do a sit-up),
bringing the knee towards the chest. The other leg is straight. Place your
hands behind you on the floor to support your back. You can vary this by
leaning against a wall and hugging your knee to your chest with both arms.

For ease of explanation, start with your right leg being straight and flex
your foot (bring your toes towards your head, as opposed to pointing them
away from you). Turn your leg to the right, so that your toes and knee are
pointing to the right as far as possible. The position of the foot is
important because it helps to isolate the inner quad. muscle. Now, do leg
raises. When I started I could only do 10 or 20 before I needed to rest.
Don't do the leg raises too quickly because technique is more important
than speed. I now do three sets, each leg of 60 repetitions (alternating
legs after each set) for a total of 180 per leg. It takes me about 10

You can tell if your muscle is getting fatigued because it will start to
quiver. Don't push it, change legs. Keep note of how many repetitions you
do before you get fatigued and try to increase the repetitions next time.
Compare you to you, not to others.

Leg presses used to bother my knees. Now that I'm doing leg raises, the leg
press doesn't bother me any more. Technique is important when doing leg
presses. (Technique is probably more important than the fact that I'm doing
leg raises). Make sure that the seat is forward far enough, so that when
you press you cannot lock your knee. This makes the initial position feel
too cramped. My knees feel too close to my chest. But it works for me and
for others (both men and women) that I work out with. Nautilus equipment
uses a cam system, such that there is less resistance on your knees in the
initial, starting position, so there is less chance of injury.


Leg Massage (John Boone

(From Bicycling magazine, pp.76-77, July 1992, Reproduced without permission)


1. Full Muscle Flush

This surface stroke prepares the muscles for deeper work. It loosens the
fibers and increases the blood flow to wash out lactic acid and other
toxins. Begin with the calves. Place the palms flat against the bottom of
the muscle and stroke toward the heart in a continuous movement. Always
stroke toward the heart so the blood containing the toxins isn't traveling
back into the muscles. After a few of these, knead the muscle during the
stroke by working the bottom of the palms in and out. End with the original
flat stroke.

2. Broad Cross-Fiber Stroke

After each muscle group has been flushed, use the same palm position at the
center of the muscles, but work sideways. Press harder than the flush. The
hands are moving acros the muscle fibers, separating them and making them
pliable so the massage can go deeper with the next type of stroke. This is
a great supplement to stretching. It makes muscle fibers less likely to
tear. End with more flushing.

3. Deep Muscle Spress

"Spress" is a Swedish term. This technique is also known as muscle
stripping. Use fingers, knuckles, or even elbows to penetrate the muscle.
[Press deep into the leg where previously rubbing the surface.] Apply
pressure until the comfort limit is passed. If there's pain, work slower,
or do a few palm strokes before spressing again. Knuckles and thumbs work
best. Concentrate on specific areas, instead of stroking the whole muscle.
But remember to work toward the heart.


Initial Strokes

Self-massage uses the same sequence of strokes as assisted massage, and the
same order of muscles -- calf, quads, hamstrings, glutes. But it's usually
less effective because self-massagers get tired or bored quicker. The most
common mistake is skipping the full-muscle flush or cross-fiber stroke to
concentrate on the spress in the sorest areas. If you don't prepare the
muscles, you won't be able to penetrate deep enough. [...] Be sure you're
applying pressure with both hands. Sometimes one side of the leg gets

Going Deeper

The advantage of self-massage is that you know exactly where it hurts and
can key on these areas. You also know when your muscles are loose enough
for deeper penetration. [...] Amateurs usually don't go [deep enough] in
assisted massage, or do so too quickly and it hurts. You can find that
perfect balance. [...] It's best to use both [hands], but fatigue is a
problem in self-massage.

Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D.
TEC International
2903 29th St
San Diego, CA 92104-4912

hm/off. 619-281-7447
fax 619-281-9468

Chief Executives Working Together
Old October 27th 04, 05:24 AM
Ozzie Gontang
external usenet poster
Posts: n/a

Archive-name: running-faq/part7
Last-modified: 10 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

================================================== =========

Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
info of sources or holder's of copyright.

Running and Pregnancy. Paula Vanzant-Hardick

I have been running for oh, about 11 or 12 years now and have run all the
way through all of my pregnancies. I feel like it has made them healthier
for both of us. I have never had any kind of a problem with low iron, high
blood pressure or any real pregnancy related maladies.

I also believe that had I not run, my recovery time after each baby was
born would have been significantly longer than they were. Even after my
second one (the C section, I could walk a couple of miles within about 10
days after delivery).

Running is a FABULOUS form of stress management.

Now to my diet, I just really maintained my normal diet, the only thing is
I may have been a little heavier on the fresh fruits (trying to avoid that
refined sugar you know) and I usually drink at least 10 8oz glasses of
water a day (you notice I say at least). The water I think also helps to
keep the yuckies away.

I am planning to continue my training regime as usual with this pregnancy
as I have with the others. I guess the only thing that I may do a bit
differently during pregnancy is if I really feel like I need to walk during
any of my runs, I will, it may only be a few feet or it may be 1/2 mile
but if I have a feeling that I don't think should be there I don't hesitate
to walk it off.

Any of these other women who have run while pregnant may have other
suggestions but I guess my biggest thing is to just really do what feels
best for the person.

And one last note, there were times during each of my pregnancies that I
would have rather had a nap, but instead would drag myself out for a run, I
would not only feel better after I had run, I would have TONS more energy
(and the second, third and now fourth time that is VERY important.)

Thanks for asking and giving me the opportunity to share my thoughts!
Paula (and the thundering herd--Tom, Shaun, Alexa, Erin and #4)

excerpted by Paula from UK version of Runner's World May 1995

"Running for Two" (subtitle Good News- running during pregnancy can make
you and your baby healthier!) By Joe Dunbar

"There are two main issued: how will training affect the baby, and how will
pregnancy affect running performance?....In General, the running you do
when pregnant should be aimed at maintaining rather than developing

The main danger to the fetus (that British spelling), according to Dr.
Richard Budgett 0f the British Olympic Medical Centre, is from an increase
in body temperature. The main effect of too great an increase in body
temperature is damage to the fetus's central nervous system. The danger is
especially great in the first three months, but you should be careful
throughout the pregnancy. Budgett recommends that you limit the increase
in body temperature to 38.9 Degree C (102 F).

You are also generally recommended not to exceed a rate of 140-150bpm, but
individuals vary enormously in their resting , maximum and training heart
rates. Remember too that one effect of endurance training is that your body
can control temperature rises more effectively ,so a runner who is highly
trained before pregnancy should be in a slightly better position. Drinking
plenty of fluids is essential to avoid dehydration and hyperthermia. This
will also help to limit the temperature increase, so get into the habit of
drinking regularly during training it's equally important to avoid
hypoglycemia during and after exercise carbo drinks will help to replace
[carbohydrates] both during and after exercise, provided that they aren't
too concentrated. One recent project that followed two groups of 462
suburban women through their pregnancies found that women who had burned
more calories per week (as a result of greater exercise levels) tend to
give birth to slightly heavier babies than women who had exercised less.

....the bottom line? Although each individual will differ, you should bear
in mind the following guidelines on pregnancy and running:

o It is safe to continue moderate training throughout your pregnancy,
although individual complications may cause limitations.
o Listen to your body and run as you feel.
o There is no need to switch to other forms of exercise unless you
have specific problems.
o Use your heart rate and check your temperature during training.
Stick to sensible levels to avoid hyperthermia.
o Take plenty of fluids to limit the risk of dehydration and assist
o You can reduce lower back pain by strengthening the abdominal & hip
flexor muscles, & stretching the muscles around the pelvis and spine.
o Try to avoid explosive exercise during pregnancy.
o Try water-running sessions: they are specific to running but have
far less impact, and water helps to avert hyperthermia."

As I said, I found this article very interesting, and the parts that I have
included are verbatim, unless in parentheses. Hope you find this
interesting and of some use to all those expectant mom's who don't want to
give up their running.

A Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People from Ozzie Gontang

from The Way of Chuang Tzu by Thomas Merton, 1965
New Direction Publishing Corporation

If a man is crossing a river
And an empty boat collides with his own skiff,
Even though he be a bad-tempered man
He will not become very angry.

But if he sees a man in the boat,
He will shout at him to steer clear.

If the shout is not heard, he will shout again,
And yet again, and begin cursing.
And all because there is somebody in the boat.
Yet if the boat were empty,
He would not be shouting and not angry.

If you can empty your own boat
Crossing the river of the world,
No one will oppose you,
No one will seek to harm you....

When I confronted by reckless drivers, speeding skaters or bikers,
I simply avoid them and say to myself,
"Empty boat."

Over the years, those two words have saved me from feeding
anger, aggression and violence-both mine and theirs.

Hints for the Success of the Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)

These Hints are from a brochure for Super-Fours, i.e. those running over 4
hours in the Marathon. It was subtitled: "A Short Guide to the Care and
Support of Four-Hour Marathoners, The Physically Distressed and Mentally
Distracted Sub-Fours and The First Time Marathoner-Who Only Wants To
It was originally published by the International Association of
Marathoners (IAM and pronounced "I AM") in 1988.

The last 6 to 8 miles of the Marathon will test an individual physically
but most of all mentally. No matter how well prepared on may be, the
unknown of how one will be or how the weather conditions will be leaves
one with some sense of discovery or travelling unfamiliar territoroes of
mind/body. It is often for the righteous and well-trained that the fall
from grace is the hardest.


Know that you will tell others your verbal time: "About 4 hours."

Know that you will harbor a desired time: "I THINK I can do it,
if all goes perfect,
15 to 30 minutes faster."

Know that you will have an ideal or fantasized time:
"Wouldn't it be great to break
3:30 in my first marathon."

Acknowledge your desired time and Fantasy Time verbally to yourself, otherwise
they will influence you finish time for the worse.

Super-Four Success One:

Set your time with a standard deviation (SD) of 15 minutes. The SD+/-
(Verbal Time + 5 minutes). The mind/body message goes from a single
second in time to a window of 30 minutes and respects the mind, the body
and the conditions of the day.

Super-Four Success Two:

Starting a marathon 30 seconds to 60 seconds per mile faster than your
race plan for the first 3 to 5 miles can slow your finish time from 20
minutes to 90 minutes. That speed will burn off several times more
glycogen in the first 3 to 5 miles than needed. You are fueled with
energy from minimal running the 6 days before the marathon. You have also
stored extra energy from eating and hydrating well the last three days
before the marathon. Know your game plan and stick to it for the first 3
to 5 miles when you are so full of energy. That energy can easily give
you the power to run those first few miles at that 30 second to 60 second
per mile faster...and not even realize it. It will remember somewhere
between miles 18 and 26.

Super-Four Success Three:

The jitteriness you feel the morning of the race and the day before are
from your body being fueled and needing to expend energy. You can
identify it as fear, or nervousness, or worry. Just remember you haven't
run more than 2 to 4 miles in 3 days. You body is ready to do
something-Run A Marathon. You now feel what it's like not to run a few
days...or the feelings 3 days after injuring yourself. To walk and
sightsee 5 to 10 miles the day before the marathon is 500 to 1000 calories
of energy plus the water to store the glycogen. You may not be able to
replenish it by race time.

Super-Four Success Four:

In the past 6 months if you have moved, bought a house, changed jobs,
started or ended a relationship, had a child (or fathered a child), have
trouble at work or home that costs you mental energby, there is a good
likelihood you will finish 30 to 60 minutes slower than you had planned.

Super-Four Success Five:

When you feel tired or unable to go on, should your mind go to the
finish line, bring it back to the present. If your mind is at the finish,
so is your body...even though it has 1 to 6 more miles jto go. Bring the
mind to the present by saying, "I am at Mile ___ and am being drawn by a
magnet to the finish. I hold my body up and erect and I am being pulled
steadily to the finish."

Super-Four Success Six:

The last 10 miles push the crown of your head up and look to the
horizon. By holding the head erect you save your shoulder muscles and
balance not only the weight of your 12 to 14 pound head but also your

Super-Four Success Seven:

The last 6 miles run out from the pack and away from the curbside. You
are in a trance state by mile 18. You will be open to and picking up
visual and non-verbal cues of runners around you. If you are away from the
curb and can see 200 to 300 yards in front of you, you will be running
your own race. Should someone stop dead in f ront of you, do not give them
any of your energy by getting angry or upset. Simply say as you pass them,
"Don't lose your form. Even if you walk keep your good running form."

Super-Four Success Eight:

When someone running with you starts to speed up or to fall behind, or
you start to pick up your pace or fall behind; in your mind, picture a pair
of scissors in your hand cutting the cord between you and the other runner.
Otherwise, you will be carrying that person in your mind...and it will
only slow you down...or wear you out if they are in front of you. You can
only be in one place physically, and that is directly above the space upon
which you feet are running. Cutting that cord allows you to cut loose from
a slower runner or free your mind from attempting to keep up with a faster

Super-Four Success Nine:

When you run with someone, run shoulder to shoulder. If you run
slightly behind, the mind often feels like it is having to catch up. If
your image is that of being pulled or towed by the runner in front of you,
then running behind is okay...unless the runner complains.

Super-Four Success Ten:

In a marathon to catch someone, wind them in over a mile to three miles.
that way you waste no energy required to finish the last 1 to 6 miles.

If you want to share your thoughts, suggestions, ideas, mantras, anecdotes,
and your own Super-Four Success hints, please send e-mail them or send them

International Association of Marathoners (IAM)
Attn. Ozzie Gontang
2903 29th Street
San Diego, CA 92104

e-mail: Ozzie Gontang
ph. 619-281-7447
fax 619-281-9468
Mindful Running: http://www.mindfulness.com
Old October 27th 04, 05:24 AM
Ozzie Gontang
external usenet poster
Posts: n/a

Archive-name: running-faq/part6
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

================================================== =========
Shoes (Thomas Page )

Here is a summary of shoe reviews gleaned from various places including
manufacturers' adds, Road Runner Sports catalog, Runner`s World, Running
Times, rec.running postings, and my own experience. I will post and update

Guide to Categories
BASICS: A good quality shoe for a beginning through mid-mileage runner.

LIGHTWEIGHT TRAINER/RACER: Typically under 10 ounces. Very light, very
fast, biomechanically gifted runners can wear these shoes as daily
trainers. Other runners may get away with using these as a second pair for
racing in or for track workouts. These shoes usually have blown rubber
soles for light weight so they wear out too quickly for an everyday
training shoe for most of us.

MC: (Motion Control) Made for over-pronators and heavier runners.

STABILITY: For neutral runners and mild over-pronators. Offers some
resistance to pronation and supination.

RACING FLAT: Most people should race in their regular trainers or
lightweight trainers. For people who can get away with it, racing flats
might buy them a few seconds in a 10k. If that is the difference between
1st and 2nd, it is probably worth it. If it is the difference between 38:04
and 38:14 it is probably not worth the risk of injury. These shoes have
very little stability, cushioning, or durability, but they tend to weigh
2-4 oz. less than a lightweight trainer.

If you remove the insole, you can tell the type of construction. Slip
Lasted shoes have a sewn seam running the length of the shoe. Board lasted
shoes have a cardboard board running the length of the shoe. Combination
lasted shoes have cardboard in the rear half, and a seam up the front half.
Slip lasted shoes are the most flexible. Board lasted shoes are the most
stable and least flexible. Combination lasted shoes attempt to compromise
giving a flexible forefoot and a stable rear. Orthotics wearers should
stick to board or combination lasted shoes. True over-supinators (these are
rare) should use flexible slip lasted shoes. Another way to look at it: if
you have a rigid foot (tends to be high arched feet), favor flexible (slip
laste) shoes. If you have a floppy foot (tends to have flatter feet and
overpronate), favor combination or board construction.

The last is the form the shoe is made on. Lasts vary from curved, to
semi-curved, to straight. Straight lasts are generally the most stable
shoes, while curved lasted shoes tend to be the most flexible. You just
have to see what last from what manufacturer fits your foot.

A good running shoe store is essential. The sales people at the sporting
goods chain stores and the mall shoe stores just don't know their products
or how to fit runners, despite advertising to the contrary. A real runner's
store should allow you to run in the shoe on the sidewalk outside the
store, or at least on a tread mill in the store and watch you run. They
should be able to tell you if you over-pronate in a particular shoe. The
advice you get in a good store is worth the price (full retail) you pay.

Don't be a jerk and pick the brains of a good running shoe store salesman
and then buy at a discount place. If you value their advice, buy a pair of
shoes from the specialty running store so they will still be in business
the next time you need them. Then, if you liked the pair you bought, go
ahead and buy it from a discount store or mail order place in the future;
you don't owe the store your business forever. Remember though, that models
change, and you will want to go back to the good store every few years.

Weight is typically listed for mens' size 9 as quoted by manufacturer and
found either in Runners World, Running Times, or Road Runner Sports
catalog. Different sources differ in the weight they report, often by as
much as an ounce. I have not been consistent about which source I use here
so you may find a discrepancy with a source you consult.

M.C. stands for Motion Control (i.e. a shoe for over-pronators).

************** SHOE REVIEWS *************

Check out:

http://www.runnersworld.com/ Runner's World Online!

================================================== ===========
Active Isolated Stretching

Aaron Mattes' book Active Isolated Stretching. See RW, Feb/94
The book is $30 (+ Postage/handling). You can reach Aaron at:

2932 Lexington St
Sarasota, FL 34231-6118

Aaron has video tapes of the stretches. The father/son team which has
marketed themselves very well, were trained by Aaron Mattes in Active
Isolated Stretching. They videoed their tape at Aaron's. Anyway, go to the
source and support those people who often aren't the marketing wizs yet
share so much great information.

Two great little books which would be of great help to you are from a
fellow who has shared a lot of his wisdom on rec.running.

You can reach Paul Blakey at

His books a
The Muscle Book $10.99
Stretching Without Pain $14.99

I have used them over the past several years and know that you'll find them
very helpful in learning what you need to know about your "thinking body."

Tell them Ozzie sent you. I don't receive any financial compensation, just
want to support people who, I believe, care about helping people learn to
take care of themselves plus get some good info out to the world.

================================================== ===========

Stretching (Shane P Esau
) (Rocky Essex

STRETCHING EXERCISES by Shane Esau, Edited by Rocky Essex


When stretching, stretch the muscle until your feel a slight tightness,
then hold for 20-30 seconds. Repeat, this time stretching the muscle a
little more. Thus it should take 1-1.5 minutes/stretch (a total of 15-20


Place your hand on the wall, with the front of your elbow as well on the
wall Now turn so that you can feel a stretch in your chest - try to keep
your elbow on the wall - your hand should be shoulder height or higheer.


Stretch your hamstrings by lying on your back, with 1 knee bent. Then bring
your other leg up to vertical, keeping your knee straight and your back
against the floor. This is a much better stretch for your hamstrings than
is the bent over stretch.


Stand erect, grab one leg and pull your foot towards your but. Remember to
keep your stomach tight - don't let your stomach relax - do this for both

Another quad stretch is to sit on your feet and bend (lean your upper
torso) backwards, keeping your knees on the ground.


Stand erect with your feet shoulder width apart. Now take your left leg and
put it behind your right leg and put your left foot about 12" to the right
of your right foot. Now lean your torso so that is upright again (take your
right hand and run it down your right leg until your feel the stretch).
Repeat with the other leg.


Try to stretch 1/2 - 1 hour/day - this includes pre-training stretching,
but at least 1 stretching session/day that is outside of training.


Take your left hand, and put it behind your head, palm facing the same way
as your face. Now, slide your hand down your spine, until you feel a
stretch. Now take your right hand and grab your left elbow, and pull your
left elbow towards your right hip (over and down). This should stretch the


First, sit on your feet, with your arms outstretched in front of you. Now,
place your left hand on top of your right hand. Now, lean back and twist
your body towards your right side (you want to try to put your right armpit
on the ground). If this is not stretching, move your hands further out in
front of you.


This is for your upper back and is easy to do - take your left elbow in
your right hand, and pull it across the front of your chest - try pulling
your left elbow all the way over to your right pec muscle - it may be
easier if your put your left forearm in your right armpit.


Lie on your back, and put your legs in the crunch position (90 deg bend in
your legs and your hips) Now, pedal your legs from bent to almost straight,
and at the same time bend at the waist bringing your elbows to your knees.
It is a killer (mainly because of the co-ordination that it takes)

It is like a leg lift on the starting part, then changes to a crunch situp
from that point on. Fingers interlaced behind head and pedal while you are


Sit down with your legs out in front of you. Now bend your left leg and put
your left foot on the outside of your right leg, between your right cheek
and your right knee- pull your left foot as close to your right cheek as
possible. Now, pull your left knee in towards your chest. If you don't feel
much, grab your left shin, and give your left leg a little twist (ie pull
your shin closer to your chest). Your should feel this. Another one is to
lie on your back, put both feet in the air, then bend your left leg again,
but this time bring your left shin in front of your roght quad. Now pull
your right leg towards your chest - you should feel this in your buttocks.
If you don't, push your left knee away from your chest, while maintaining
the distance between your right leg and your chest.

ANKLES (Mike Dotseth

Stand with feet in normal standing position. Place a hand on a wall or a
railing for a little balance. Now, 'roll' your feet around on their 'outer
edges'. Repeat 50 times. ('Rolling on the outer edges' means to tilt your
feet as far outward and inward (supination and pronationtween rock forward
on your the balls of your feet and back on your heels.) The major benefit
is the stretching and strengthening on the muscles and tendons which keep
your foot stable as you run.

A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about stretching and flexibility by
Brad Appleton can be found on:

Ftp-site: cs.huji.ac.il:/pub/doc/faq/rec/martial.arts

========================================== Sweat (Sam Henry

Question: I sweat more than I can replace during a long run, ride, or
triathlon. What can I do about it?

It's hard to say what to do without knowing what you do now. None of us can
replace as much as we lose while we are losing it. The trick is to keep
from going into deficit.

Do you hydrate yourself every day, all day long? Min 2 qts/day.

Do you hydrate yourself extra before the ride (like a qt an hour for 2 hrs
or so before the start).

Do you use sports drinks to help with trace element losses? I use Exceed at
25% solution for the 1st half of long rides, orange juice at 25% for med
rides, and plain water for short rides.

What is your consumption rate during rides? I start drinking 30 mins into
the ride and drink a qt an hour whether I am thirsty or not. If you are
thirsty, it is probably getting pretty close to too late.

Do you eat while you ride? Things like bananas, oranges, and pears provide
fuel *and* coolant, along with some nifty minerals and such that your body
needs to make the cooling system work right. I eat fig newtons and such
right as I start and eat every 20-30 mins after the first hour. Pears,
particularly, are an easy-to-eat thirst slacker.

What kind of hydration regimen do you use *afterwards*? I immediately start
drinking at the end of a ride, starting with a quart of water followed by a
quart of full-strength sports drink (Exceed for me). I also find something
to eat that is high in complex carbohydrates. All this within the *first
hour* after the workout. The eating and drinking are intertwined. Then I
drink another quart of something that sounds appealing. Then I go back to
my drinking all day long to get my "normal" two quarts.

I might have thought I would slosh, but I never have. And most of my riding
is done at temps above 80 degs and in high humidity. If you are urinating
infrequently and the urine is a dark color, you are underhydrated, whether
you have exercised or not. No matter how much you sweat.

================================================== ==========
Treadmills--(contributed by Steve Pachuta,

The January, 1996 _Consumer Reports_ has a treadmill review which
features both motorized and nonmotorized models, together with some
useful criteria for evaluation.

Why use a treadmill?

There are many advantages to treadmills, including (1) The most
obvious--weather is not a factor in your training schedule. (2) Training
is possible any time of day--darkness is not a factor. (3) No danger of
getting hit by a car or tripping on a curb. (4) No stoplights, no rabid
dogs (presumably), no hecklers (presumably)! (5) Controlled hill workouts
are possible with adjustable incline. (6) Precise interval training is
possible. This is a big advantage; you just need to set your speed and
stay on the treadmill to run your goal pace exactly.

Is treadmill running the same as outdoor running?

I think the consensus in the various posts in rec.running is that
treadmill running is very similar to outdoor running. The physiological
effects of a person moving relative to the ground vs. the ground moving
relative to a person are not greatly different. Certainly there are some
biomechanical issues involved, notably the tendency for the treadmill belt
to slow down momentarily during each footstrike. Many treadmills have
compensatory schemes to minimize this effect, including large flywheels and
microsensors which constantly adjust the belt speed.
Some differences between treadmill running and outdoor running are the
absence of wind and visual motion cues on a treadmill. The lack of wind
makes sweat generation a serious issue, and a strong fan blowing directly
into your face is almost a necessity for serious training. The absence of
a headwind also gives a slight speed advantage to treadmills, and it is
often suggested that an incline of 1 to 2% on the treadmill will compensate
for the lack of headwind. The lack of visual motion cues on a treadmill
can be disconcerting initially, but this is something you get used to. It
may contribute to the feeling that you are working harder at a given pace
than you would outdoors.

What features are important in a treadmill? Here are some things to

(1) Motorized vs. nonmotorized. If your goal is to bring your outdoor
running indoors, then a motorized treadmill is what you want. Nonmotorized
treadmills will certainly give you a workout, but they do not simulate true
outdoor running since you are driving a belt as well as your body. Many
nonmotorized treadmills only work at an incline, and pace is not constant
as on a motorized treadmill (although in this respect they are similar to
outdoor running).
(2) Ruggedness. If you are really going to run on your treadmill, you
need something more than the $299 specials you see at various discounters.
Some things to look for: welded frame, large rollers (consider that some
club models have rollers on the order of 8 inches in diameter), large motor
(1.5 horsepower minimum, with 2.0 or up preferable). THE HEAVIER AND
THINGS BECOME. Most treadmills are not built for people weighing more
than 250 pounds.
wouldn't settle for anything less than a full 1-year warranty. Treadmills
are like cars; they will almost certainly need some work at some point.
(4) Maximum speed of 10 mph or more. This is 6:00 mile pace, which
will do for most people. There are treadmills which can achieve 12 mph (5:00
pace); I haven't heard of any which go faster, but they probably exist.
Personally, the consequences of a misstep while running indoors at 5:00
pace scare the hell out of me!
(5) Method of belt lubrication. Running belts can get quite warm and
wear faster if not properly lubricated. Some models are self-lubricating;
others require periodic lubrication/waxing.
(6) Ability to simulate actual running. Various mechanisms have been
developed to make treadmill running feel more natural. Without putting
in a plug for any particular manufacturer, I would recommend trying out
several different makes. It is surprising how a treadmill that feels so
natural can suddenly feel terrible after you try a different one.
(7) Manual vs. motorized height adjustment. I've used both, and I
strongly recommend motorized. If you want to run courses that simulate
real outdoor runs you don't want to be cranking a handle all the time,
especially if you're running fast.
(8) Noise level. This can vary considerably, but note that "quiet"
does not necessarily mean "better."
(9) Programmability. It should be a given that speed and incline are
adjustable during a workout. It is also very desirable to be able to
PROGRAM both speed and incline to create your own custom courses. Many
manufacturers include their own preprogrammed courses in their electronics,
but it is less common for them to give the user the ability to do this.
(10) Low price? Realistically treadmills for serious runners are going
to cost more than $1000, and they can be a lot more than this.
(11) Incline range. Most treadmills have inclines ranging from 0 to
10%. There are some which can produce a decline (-2% for example). See
below for conversion between % incline and degrees.
(12) Board and belt type. Some treadmills have shock-absorbing boards
and/or soft belts to provide a more forgiving workout than can be obtained
on hard pavement.

Any disadvantages or other considerations?

The lack of wind is definitely a problem, and as mentioned above a fan
is a necessity. Another problem with treadmills is boredom. I am always
amazed at how much faster an hour passes when running outside than when
running inside. I don't think you can expect to read while running on a
treadmill, but you can watch television or listen to music. I generally
prefer loud music over television, but this is obviously a matter of
personal preference.
Another thing to be aware of is the tendency to set the treadmill at a
fixed speed and incline and run an entire workout at these settings. I
would recommend varying both speed and incline to give your muscles some
variety and minimize the possibility of injury.
Some treadmills interfere with heart rate monitors and prevent their
use, though there are treadmills which come with built-in heart rate
Safety is of some concern, and many treadmills come with protective
devices which stop the belt in case you slip or fall off. Treadmill
manufacturers always recommend plenty of clearance between the treadmill
and the walls of a room. Treadmills can draw a lot of electrical current,
and 30-amp circuits are recommended for some heavy duty models.

How do I convert between % incline and degrees?

Remember your trigonometry. Grade (or incline) = rise/run, opposite/
adjacent, height/length, or whatever you want to call it. For percent
grade, multiply this by 100.

degrees = arctan((percent grade)/100)
percent grade = tan(degrees) * 100

Thus, 1% incline is a mere .57 degrees, 5% incline is 2.9 degrees, 10%
incline is 5.7 degrees, and 15% incline is 8.5 degrees.

Where can I get more information on treadmills?

Start with back issues of _Runner's World_, _Running Times_, etc. They
usually have articles on treadmills as winter approaches. The December,
1993 _Runner's World_ contains a list of manufacturers, a chart to convert
between treadmill running at various inclines and outdoor running, and some
sample workouts. The January, 1996 _Runner's World_ contains brief
evaluations of many different treadmills (mainly high-end models).

================================================== =========
Weather ("The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide)


Cold weather does not present any serious problems for you, especially if
you are in reasonably good condition. If you have heart problems, consult a
doctor first. High wind-chill factors are the greatest threats to you in
cold weather, since you can suffer frostbite if you are not adequately
protected from the wind. You must remember that when you run, your own
motion against the wind increases the windchill factor and increases the
risk of frostbite. Be sure all normally exposed areas of skin are covered:
head, face, ears, and hands. The important thing to remember is that you
must dress in layers in order to create your own insulation.

When you run in cold weather, beware of ice on the road, and remember to
taper off your run slowly so you will not catch a chill. When you arrive
home, change out of your damp, sweaty clothes right away.


When you run in hot weather, your blood pressure can drop dangerously or
you could suffer heat exhaustion. If you start feeling dizzy and dehydrated
while jogging and your pulse and breathing grow very rpid, you could very
well be on your way to heat exhaustion. Stop exercising immediately. Get
out of the sun, drink fluids (tepid, not cold), and rest.

Running in heat also slows down the blood circulation, placing a greater
burden on your heart. And of course, you will sweat a lot more so your body
loses more water that usual. To replace it, drink a full glass of water
before you start and one every 15 or 20 minutes during your run. A few
pinches of salt dissolved in the water will help. But if your stomach is
empty, omit the salt or it will probably cause stomach cramps.

An important thing to remember about heat is that it takes your body about
two weeks to adjust.


If you run in a strong wind, you are going to be expending six percent more
oxygen that you would under ordinary condtitions. So, if you are running in
a stiff breeze slow down and you will get the same benefits as you would
from a faster run. When you set out on a windy day, start with the wind in
front of you at the beginning of your workout; then at the end, when you
are more tired, you will have it at your back, helping to push you along.


Rain need not be a deterrent unless you're afraid of melting, but you will
need some protection. Wear waterproof outer clothes, of course, and as many
layers as you need to keep warm. Don't linger in them after the run but get
into dry things as soon as you get home.


High altitudes are a source of special problems. When you get to 5000 feet
above sea level and beyond, it takes a lot more time for oxygen to be
absorbed into your blood and travel throughout your body. So your heart has
to work a lot harder at its job. Plan on taking at least four to six weeks
to get adjusted to a new high altitude, and adapt your jogging routine
accordingly. Most runners recommend cutting your program by about 50% at
the beginning.

Running on cold, rainy days (Brendan Leitch

1) Dress in layers
2) Keep DRY, this is done by putting the wicking layers closest to the SKIN.

What works for us: (us = the running club I belong to)

Top: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd turtle
neck or long sleeve t-shirt(repeat if needed) 3rd Shell jacket, Goretex is
best, but any layered Nylon one will do the job

Bottom: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd long
3rd wind pants(preferably goretex again, but nylon will do)

Head: 1st Bella Clava(a thin hat that goes around head like old fashioned
ski mask)
2nd Your shell jacket hat over the Bella-Clava

Hands: 1st light thin wicking material gloves 2nd heavier glove

Feet: your normal socks/shoes - just make sure your bottom clothes cover
ankles etc.

================================================== ========


(1) Is it better to run in the morning or evening? "The Running Book" By
the Editors of Consumer Guide

It's' important to establish a routine for yourself, geared to your own
disposition and living habits. Some runners prefer to run early in the
morning, some even before daybreak. They seem to like the solitude
available at that hour, when the streets are still empty of traffic and

Some runners are shrewd, enough to kill two birds with one stone. They get
their exercise in while "commuting" to work. Issues to consider: Are
showers available at work? How far is it to work? What kind of work do you
do? Do you work outside or inside?

People who do their running in the morning say that it sets them up for the
day. They are more alert and less likely to become upset by the pressures
and frustrations of their work, and at the end of the day they fell less

Other runners wait to run after work, put their jobs behind them, and
headed home. A run at this time provides a nice transition for them, a time
to work off some of the tensions that may have built during the day so that
they don't carry them into family life. ...you should end your run at least
an hour before you retire. Otherwise you may find it difficult to fall

(2) Should I run when I have a cold/fever? "The Running Book" By the
Editors of Consumer Guide

Recommended schedules should be followed as faithfully as possible, but not
blindly. There are certain times when you have no business running. If, for
example, you have the flu, a cold, or some other ailment, don't overexert
yourself and possibly harm your body by trying to run. If you feel a cold
coming on, however, running may help you get rid of it. But if you try this
cure, follow Dr. Kostrubala's recommendations. He suggests that you dress
warmly, take two aspirin in a glass of milk, and then go out for a run. Jog
slowly and see how you feel. Continue jogging until your body grows warm,
even hot, Then try to keep your temperature at that level.

(3) How often should I run? "The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer

Most running programs, ask you to run three times a week as a minimum
requirement. This helps reinforce the habit of running, but its main
purpose is to develop cardiovascular conditioning through frequent running.
But more is not necessarily better. Experts in physical fitness tend to
agree that running days should alternate with days of rest, since rest for
the body is as much a part of developing fitness as exercise.

(4) Which of the 8 lanes on a US track is actually the '1/4 mile' one?

(Lori Moffitt
) writes: The long and short of it, pun
intended, is that US 1/4 mile tracks are typically 400 meter tracks, and
the runner needs to compensate for the difference by running a few yards
extra, about 10 yards. The 400 meter distance seemed to be measured 12''
from the inside curb of the track. Opinions vary about this and the
compensation distance.

(Art Overholser
) A perfect 400-m track,
measured 12" from the inside curb as specified by TAC, is 437.4 US yards
long, or 7'8'' shy of 440 yards. So you only need to run 8 feet (not 10
yards) extra to get the 1/4 mi. To get one mile out of 4 laps you have to
add about 10 yards.

If his figures are correct, to change this lap to a quarter mile, move out
an additional 15 inches when going around the bends. (Sherwood Botsford

(5) I have started running after having my baby and I am curious to know if
any one has some stomach exercises?

If you had your baby less than 6 weeks ago, it is likely that your uterus
hasn't returned to its normal size, and this could cause the cramps.
Remember, too, that your stomach muscles separated during pregnancy and it
takes time for them to meld together again.

The important thing to remember when returning to running after a layoff is
to ease back into running, paying scrupulous attention to how it feels. The
old adage, "listen to your body," applies here. If your stomach is
cramping, slow down, ease up.

STRETCHES (Paulette Leeper
) To stretch
your abdominals, lay on your back with your knees bent and the soles of
your feet on the floor. Let your knees drop to one side, as you lay your
arms toward the other...hold for about 30 seconds and gently switch sides.
From this same position, you can begin to strengthen your abdominals by

pressing your lower back toward the floor...holding it for increasing
increments of time. Your ability to hold your lower back to the floor will
give you a good sense of what kind of shape your abdominals are in at this

Many of the abdominal exercises recommended during pregnancy are good to
begin with post-partum. One of my favorites is to sit up with knees bent
and do a sort of "reverse sit-up." Instead of coming up from the floor,
move your torso toward the floor with your arms stretched out in front of

================================================== ========

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